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Electro Principe

Electro Principe

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Published by Ojog Ciprian Alin
Transformer diode... *principiile electrice
Transformer diode... *principiile electrice

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Published by: Ojog Ciprian Alin on Nov 02, 2009
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10/27/2013

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Electro - Principles I  
ETEC 1120 
The Basic Power Supply
The power supply is used to convert theAC energy provided bythe wall outlet to dc energy. In most electronic equipment, the power cord supplies the ac energy at 120 V tothe power supply.The power supply then provides all the dc voltages needed to runthe equipment.The basic power supply is broken down into 4 elements as shown.
AC
1) The Transformer 2) The Rectifie3) The Filte4) The Voltage Regulator 
The Power SupplyThe Transformer The Rectifier The Filter 
- usually steps up or stepsdown the incoming linevoltage depending on theneeds of the power supply.This alternating voltage isthen fed to the rectifier.- is a diode circuit thatconverts the ac to pulsatingdc. This pulsating dc isthen applied to the filter.- is a circuit that reducesthe variations of the in thedc voltage. It can includeone or several passive
Basic Power Supply -- Block Diagram
 
Rectifier Filter VoltageRegulator 
 V
in
V
out
AB C
A V
in
 V
out
V
DC
120 V
AC
B
C
Transformer 
Figure 1
12-1
 
Page
Electro - Principles I  
ETEC 1120 
The Transformer
components such as resistors, capacitors and inductors. We will
 
study the capacitor as a filter. The filtered dc is then fed to avoltage regulator stage.- is used to maintain a constant voltage at the power supply output.It also provides a further smoothing of the dc voltage.We will be using a zener diode as a voltage regulator. Modernday circuits have superceded the zener diode regulator with moremodern integrated circuits. Since the zener diode is the simplest of these circuits to understand, we will study it as a prerequisite to themore modern circuits available.The basic schematic symbol for thetransformer is shown in Figure 2. Note that it has two windings , the primary and the secondary. Theinput voltage is applied to the primary winding and the outputvoltage is taken from the secondary winding. The vertical lines between the windings represent an iron core transformer.Figure 3 represents a simple transformer. Note that there is no electrical connection between the primary andsecondary windings.AC is appliedto the primary and this ac currentcreates a magnetic flux in the coreof the transformer.
The Voltage Regulator The Transformer 
Primary(Input)Secondary(Output)
Figure 2
 
 V
1
N
1
 V
2
N
2
Magnetic Flux
Load
2 : 1
Figure 3
12-2
 
Page
Electro - Principles I  
ETEC 1120 
This magnetic flux grows as the ac current increases in the primarywinding.As the ac current decreases, then reverses, - so does themagnetic flux.The ac current has created a constantly changing and reversingflux in the iron core of the transformer.This constantly changing flux also passes through the secondarywinding.As it grows, collapses and reverses, it cuts through thesecondary windings and induces a voltage in it. The voltage levelthat appears across the secondary winding is dependant on theratio of primary turns to secondary turns.
Transformer Types
 
Step Up
120 V
AC
240 V
AC
1 : 2
Step Up Transformers provide a secondary voltage that is greater than the primary voltage
Step Down
120 V
AC
30 V
AC
4 : 1
Step Down Transformers provide a secondary voltage that is lessthan the primary voltage
The Transformer
Isolation
120 V
AC
120 V
AC
1 : 1
Isolation Transformers provide a secondary voltage that is equalthan the primary voltage. This type of transformer is used to isolatethe power supply from the ac power line.
This is often necessarywith certain equipment (i.e. television sets) to protect both theequipment and the technician working on it.
12-3

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