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Published by Md.imthiyaz
Use of stone mastic asphalt in construction of roads
Use of stone mastic asphalt in construction of roads

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Published by: Md.imthiyaz on Nov 02, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Accurate quantification of aggregate gradation is essential for a better understanding of its effect on the load-carrying capacity of an asphalt mixture. This iseven more applicable for stone mastic asphalt (SMA), where stone-to-stone contactforms the cornerstone of its load-carrying capacity, especially against rutting. This paper presents a mix design procedure, which is based on and adapted from the Baileymethod, to objectively quantify stone-to-stone contact for SMA mixtures. A total of 16asphalt mixtures with six different aggregate gradations and three different asphaltbinder contents were studied. Volumetric analysis of specimens showed that the volumeof coarse aggregate in the mixtures had a significant effect on the voids in the coarseaggregate and the voids in the mineral aggregate (VMA). The coarse aggregate stone-to-stone contact was developed when the volume of coarse aggregate was in the rangeof 95—105% of the rodded unit weight. Asphalt binder content at 5.5% was optimal for the designed aggregate gradation of SMA mixtures. The test results indicated that theSMA mixtures having stone-to-stone contact exhibited excellent rutting characteristics.The findings also indicated that a positive correlation existed between the ruttingobtained from the wheel tracking test and the deformation strain obtained from theuniaxial creep test.
Pavements and surfacings
A road consists of a pavement and a surfacing. When combined, the surfacing and thepavement are designed to carry the loads of heavy vehicles. The pavement provides thestructural stability for the road and consists of layers of crushed rock and stone of selected sizes that is compacted using a limited amount of water as a binder. Figure 1shows the typical layers in a pavement. These are (from top to bottom) are the basecourse of typically crushed stone or gravel, the sub-base course of selected granular material and the sub-grade which is the in-situ (native) soil. The material may be further strengthened and stabilized with cement, lime or bitumen.3 Pavements in heavilytrafficked roads consist of asphalt or concrete instead of granular material in the baseand sub base layers.
Typically road surfacings are either Portland cement concrete or bitumen based. Thesurfacing is to provide a running surface for cars and trucks and to provide a sealagainst water infiltrating and harming the material in the pavement.The road user requirements of a surfacing are:• To provide high skid resistance to assist in vehicle control• To limit the water spray and to provide better visibility• To provide an even riding surface and• To generate low noise levels if the road is near populated or noise sensitiveareas.
 The structural requirements of a surfacing are to carry the loads and toprovide a seal against water infiltrating the material in the pavement. Theunderlying pavement will deteriorate very quickly under load if water finds itsway into the pavement material. Every effort is made to keep the pavementfree of water. The passage of heavy trucks on the road, forces the water intothe pavement with pressure equal to their tyre pressure. This action will, intime, result in the structural failure of the pavement. This underlines theimportance of keeping the pavement (under the surfacing) free of water. There are three major types of asphalt surfacings, characterized by a mixtureof bitumen and stone aggregate. These are:• Dense Graded asphalt (DGA)• Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) and• Open Graded Asphalt (OGA)Asphalt surfacings differ by the proportion of different size aggregate(crushed rock), the amount of bitumen added and the presence of otheradditives and material.A common rural road surfacing treatment is a “chip seal” in which aggregateis rolled into a bitumen coating. This is not an asphalt and is not the subjectof this report.
What is SMA?
Stone mastic asphalt
was developed in Germany in the 1960’s; Stone Mastic asphalt(SMA) provides a deformation resistant, durable, surfacing material, suitable for heavilytrafficked roads. SMA has found use in Europe, Australia and the United States as adurable asphalt surfacing option for residential streets and highways. SMA has a highcoarse aggregate content that interlocks to form a stone skeleton that resist permanentdeformation. The stone skeleton is filled with a mastic of bitumen and filler to whichfibres are added to provide adequate stability of bitumen and to prevent drainage of binder during transport and placement. Typical SMA composition consists of 70−80%coarse aggregate, 8−12% filler, 6.0−7.0% binder, and 0.3 per cent fibre.The deformation resistant capacity of SMA stems from a coarse stone skeleton providingmore stone-on-stone contact than with conventional dense graded asphalt (DGA) mixes

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