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The Pulpit Commentary on I Chronicles

The Pulpit Commentary on I Chronicles

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Published by: glennpease on Apr 24, 2014
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THE PULPIT COMMETARY O II CHROICLES EDITED BY THE VERY REV. H. D. M. SPECE, D.D., DEA OP GtOUCESTER; AD BY THE REV. JOSEPH S. EXELL, M.A, There are no known copyright restrictions in the United States on the use of the text. WITH ITRODUCTIOS BY THE (T). AECHDEACO F. W. PAEKAR, D.D., E.B,S.~EIGHT EEV. H. COTTEHlLIi, D.D., F.E.S.B. -VBEY REV. PEICIPAL J. TULLOCH, D.D.-REV. CAO G. KAWLISO, M.A.  —KEY. A. PLUMMBE, M.A., D.D. FUK & WAGALLS COMPAY ew York and Toronto. I. CHROICLES. (S^)io0ition anb fontUetlcB: BY REV. PROFESSOR P. C. BARKER, M.A., LL.B. fomilies bs t)arions ^ntt)or0; REV. PROF. J. R. THOMSO, M.A. REV. R. TUCK, B.A.
REV. W. CLARKSO, B.A. REV. F. WHITFIELD, M.A. REV. RICHARD GLOVER. FUK & WAGALLS COMPAY ew Yoek and Toronto. THE FIRST BOOK OF THE CHROICLES. ITRODUCTIO. § 1. Title. 1. The Hebre'w title of the Chronicles is D»p;!3 ^yi,. The literal trans- lation of the title is " Verba dienim ; " and is so offered us by Jerome (bom 331, died 422), in the preface to his work on Kings, which he named on account of its apologetic character, ' Prologus Qaleatus in Libros Regum.' By Hilarins, Bishop of Poictiers (bom circ. 300, died 368), in his ' Prologus in Librnm Psalm.,' the same title is translated, " Sermones diemm." But there is no doubt that the idiomatic rendering would rather be, " Acta, or Bes gestae, dierum." This generic rendering will most nearly cover the different shades of meaning attaching to the Hebrew word, in all those cases in which the simplest translation, " words," would not be the correct one, as, for instance, in ch. xxix. 29. In this verse the term occurs as many as four times. In the first instance it is impossible to render it as though it meant words, either literally or figuratively ; and in the other three instances, if it were sc rendered, it could only mean the written words of history. Some generic term, therefore, like " history," or " acts," will best express its significance, and probably the former of these better than the latter (' Memoria Rerum Gestarum,' Sallust, ' Jugurtha,' iv.). The exact form of words which constitutes the title of this book is not found at all in the work entitled Samuel (which is essentially one with Kings), and probably for no more important reason than this, that, being thus as it were the former half of one whole work, it had not arrived at the point where historical sources would need to be cited. In point of fact, it may be said that scarcely one such reference occurs in Samuel. In the Books of Kings,
however, we find this expression not fewer than thirty-one times, beginning with 1 Kings xiv. 19. It is somewhat more remarkable that the exact phrase is found but once in Chronicles (ch. xxviL 24). It is also found once in ehemiah, and three times in Esther, and in almost all cases it is preceded by the word l^p, a writing, or book. I. OHBOICLES. b ITRODTIOTIO TO 2. Tlie Septuagint (translation made probably about B.C. 280, at Alexan- dria, from older Hebrew manuscripts than any we bave) provides as a title for tbe work now before ns the word napaXeiiro/to'Mi' — the substantive ^i/8Xiov, accompanied or not by one of the first two ordinals, being under- stood before the genitive. The idea of the translators oi the Septuagint, or of those, whoever they were, who fixed on this title, seems to have been that Chronicles had much of the appearance of supplementing former historical works. The Greek word is Latinized for us by Jerome, into Prcetermissorttm,, i.e. the book of things omitted. But this is not all ; for Jerome, in his 'Epistle ad Paalinum,' speaks of this work as " Instrumenti Veieris Epitome ; " and in the same paragraph adds, a little further on, " Per singula quippe nomina  jnncturasqueVerborum, et prsetermissje in Regum Libris tanguntur historise, et innumerabiles explicantur Evangelii quaestiones." Jerome, therefore, evidently had present to his mind the fuller description of Chronicles as an " Epitome Instrumenti Veteris," as well as containing " Preetermissae in Libris Regum Historiee." To the same effect, we find in the ' Synopsis Scriptures Sacrae,' a treatise ranked among the duhia opera of St. Athanasius (bom ciro. 298, died 373), the remark, " Many things which had. been omitted in Kings are comprised in these books," i.e. the Books of Chronicles. Once more, Isidore (bom circ. 565, died 636), Bishop of Seville, saya, " ParalipomenSn Greece dicitur, quod prsetermissorum vel reliquorum nos dicere possumus, quia ea quae in Lege, vel in Regum Libris vel omissa vel non plene relata sunt, in isto summatini et breviter explicantia " (' Origines,' vi. 1). 3. The Vulgate (executed by Jerome direct from the Hebrew text, about A.D. 385 — 405, and accepted since the time of Gregory I., 640 — 604, or since the Council of Trent, as the anthentic and current text, thence termed Vulgate) shows in the place of the superscription, both the Hebrew and the Septuagint titles, viz. Dibre Hajamin and Paralipomenon, written re- spectively in ordinary Latin characters. Some later Latin ecclesiastical writers have used the words " Uphemeridum libri " as an equivalent of the Hebrew title. The appropriateness as a literal translation (' Cic. pro P.