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Uninterruptible Power Supplies and Standby Power Systems

Uninterruptible Power Supplies and Standby Power Systems

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1
Standby Power Generating Sets
Introduction
This chapter briefly discusses where and why the need for standby gener-ation arises and describes the systems that are included in a normalstandby power generating set. Most standby generating sets are dieselengine driven and this book concentrates on such sets. Asmall number of sets above about 500 kW may be driven by gas turbines and the sectiontitled “The Power Unit” includes an introduction to gas turbines. They arementioned elsewhere in the text but their use and characteristics are notdescribed in such detail as are the use and characteristics of diesel engines.
The Need for Standby Generation
The need for standby generation arises if the consequences of a failure ordisruption of the normal supply are not acceptable. The types of installa-tion in which the need arises seem to be limitless. There are basically fourreasons for installing standby generation: safety, security, financial loss,and data loss.
 Safety
Where there is a risk to life or health such as in air traffic con-trol, aviation ground lighting, medical equipment in hospitals, nuclearinstallations, oil refineries
 Security against vandalism, espionage, or attack
 Area lighting, com-munication systems, military installations, etc.
 Data loss
Situations in which the loss of data may be catastrophicand irretrievable such as data processing and long-term laboratorytype of testing or experiment
 Financial loss
Critical industrial processes, large financial institu-tions, etc.
Chapter
1
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.Source: Uninterruptible Power Supplies and Standby Power Systems
 
Standby generation is often installed to provide a long-term back-upto an uninterruptible power supply which will have been installed forone of the reasons mentioned above.
The Generating Set and Its SupportingSystems
The major components of a generating set are the power unit and thegenerator; these are considered in the sections titled “The Power Unit”and “Alternating Current Generators” which follow. The remaining sec-tions of this chapter are devoted to the many supporting components andsystems such as speed governors, voltage regulators, cooling and fuelsystems, ventilating and exhaust systems. Many of these componentswill include a control system which may operate independently or maybe linked to other control systems, thus the cooling system will initiatean over-temperature shut down procedure, the mains monitoring systemwill initiate a starting procedure, and the loss of one set in a multisetinstallation may initiate load shedding.The International Standard for diesel driven generating sets is ISO8528—Reciprocating internal combustion engine driven alternatingcurrent generating sets. This is a comprehensive document containinga wealth of information and well worth studying for anyone wishing toacquire detailed information about generating sets.There is no equivalent standard for gas turbine–driven generatingsets.
The Power Rating Classification of DieselEngine–Driven Generating Sets
Rating classes applicable to diesel engine–driven generator sets aredescribed in ISO 8528 and are discussed in the following paragraphs.None of the ratings include any overload capacity.
Continuous Power (COP)
Continuous power (Fig. 1.1) is the power which the set can deliver con-tinuously for an unlimited number of hours per year between the statedmaintenance intervals.
Prime Power (PRP)
This rating is applicable to sets supplying a variable power sequence.The sequence may be run for an unlimited number of hours per yearbetween the stated maintenance intervals. Prime power is the maxi-mum power generated during the sequence and the average power over
2Chapter One
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.Standby Power Generating Sets
 
any 24-hour period is not to exceed a stated percentage of the primepower. In calculating the average power, powers of less than 30 percentshall be taken as 30 percent and any time at standstill shall not becounted. The example of generating set sizing which appears in Chap. 3uses prime power rating. As the 24-hour average power of a PRP-rated set is increased, itbecomes closer to a COPrating; if the average power is equal to theprime power the set would in effect be rated for continuous power.This rating is suitable for standby supply generating purposes. Theprime power is available for peak loads which occur after start-up such asmotor starting and UPS battery charging. and after these loads havereduced, the steady state load remains (Fig. 1.2). The 24-hour average of all these loads is calculated and must not exceed the agreed percentageof prime power that may be used. It should be noted that during any24-hour period there may be several supply failures, each of which willincrease the average power loading if peak loads occur after each start-up.In the illustration the average power over the 24-hour period may becalculated from the formula: Average power
(1.1)
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Standby Power Generating Sets3
Power100%30%Prime powerPower limitTimeAverage power over 24 hour periodP
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24 hrs.
Figure 1.2
Illustration of prime power rating.
PowerPower limitContinuous powerTime
Figure 1.1
Illustration of continuous power.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.Standby Power Generating Sets

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