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Decision making system for the collision avoidance of marine vessel navigation based on COLREGs rules and regulations

Decision making system for the collision avoidance of marine vessel navigation based on COLREGs rules and regulations

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Published by LP Perera
A fuzzy-logic based decision making (DM) system to facilitate the collision avoidance capabilities for marine vessels during ocean navigation is presented in this paper. The collision avoidance of the target vessel with respect to the vessel domain of the own vessel as been analyzed and fuzzy membership functions have been derived in this study. Fuzzy rule based (IF-THEN) decision making system has been formulated, implemented and results are summarized. Further, decisions on the DM system are formulated in accordance with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) rules and regulations (COLREGs) of ocean navigation to avoid conflict situations.
A fuzzy-logic based decision making (DM) system to facilitate the collision avoidance capabilities for marine vessels during ocean navigation is presented in this paper. The collision avoidance of the target vessel with respect to the vessel domain of the own vessel as been analyzed and fuzzy membership functions have been derived in this study. Fuzzy rule based (IF-THEN) decision making system has been formulated, implemented and results are summarized. Further, decisions on the DM system are formulated in accordance with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) rules and regulations (COLREGs) of ocean navigation to avoid conflict situations.

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10/25/2012

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13
th
Congress of Intl. Maritime Assoc. of MediterraneanIMAM 2009, Istanbul, Turkey, 12-15 Oct. 2009, Page 1121-1128
Decision making system for the collision avoidance of marine vesselnavigation based on COLREGs rules and regulations.
L. P. PERERA
Centre for Marine Technology and Engineering (CENTEC), Technical University of Lisbon, Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal
J. P. CARVALHO
 INESC-ID, Technical University of Lisbon, Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal
C. GUEDES SOARES
Centre for Marine Technology and Engineering (CENTEC), Technical University of Lisbon, Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal
ABSTRACT: A fuzzy-logic based decision making (DM) system to facilitate the collision avoidancecapabilities for marine vessels during ocean navigation is presented in this paper. The collision avoidance of the target vessel with respect to the vessel domain of the own vessel has been analyzed and fuzzymembership functions have been derived in this study. Fuzzy rule based (IF-THEN) decision making systemhas been formulated, implemented and results are summarized. Further, decisions on the DM system areformulated in accordance with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) rules and regulations(COLREGs) of ocean navigation to avoid conflict situations.1 INTRODUCTIONConventional marine vessel navigational systemsconsist of human guidance, hence 75-96% of marineaccidents and causalities are affected by some typesof human errors
(
Rothblum et al. 2006, Antão andGuedes Soares 2008). Therefore implementation of an intelligent DM system during the oceannavigation is a mandatory requirement to achievehigher maritime safety standards. This reality hasbeen characterized as e-Navigation
(eNAV 2008).
Furthermore, to have Autonomous Guidance andNavigation capabilities in ocean navigation, such asthe system described in Moreira et al (2007), it isnecessary to have a decision making system onboardvessels to avoid collision situations. This applicationarea is bound to become more important in thefuture ocean navigation (Fossen, 1999) due to itscost reduction and requirements of maritime safety.This paper focuses on a fuzzy logic basedDecision Making (DM) system to implement onvessel navigation to improve safety of the vessel byavoiding the collision situations. The rules andregulations with respect to the collision avoidanceconditions, i.e., Convention on the InternationalRegulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea(COLREGs) (IMO 1972), were formulated by theInternational Maritime Organization (IMO) thatrepresents the importance of regulated prevention of the collisions in ocean navigation.Decision making process and strategies ininteraction situations with respect to the collisionavoidance conditions were presented by Chauvin etal. (2008). The analysis of quantitative datadescribing the maneuvers undertaken by ferries andcargo-ships and the behavior of the 'give way' and'stand on' vessels with respect to the verbal reportson-board recorded in a car-ferry in the Dover Straitwere also presented in the same work.The two main terminologies that were used inrecent literature with respect the collision avoidanceconditions could be presented as “Own vessel” (thevessel with the DM system) and “Target vessel” (thevessel that need to be avoided). Similar definitionshave been considered during the formulation of collision situations in this study. The detection of atarget vessel location and velocity are two importantfactors in the decision making process of thecollision avoidance. The combination of radar andinfrared imaging to detect the other vessel conditions
 
were proposed by Sato et al. (1998) as a part of thecollision avoidance system. The method of measuring course of the target vessel and theevaluation of the risk of the collision situations byimage processing are further proposed asimprovements of collision avoidance conditions inthe same work.The defined region of vessel domain that wasbounded for dynamics of the marine vessel is animportant factor to define the collision conditions.The vessel domain, in a collision situation, thatdepends on parameters of the vessel size, vesselcourse and heading angles of the encounteredvessels has been proposed by Pietrzykowski et. al(2006) and fuzzy logic based domain determinationsystem has been considered. Similarly neural-classifiers have been proposed by Lisowski et. al(2000), as an element that is supporting thenavigator in the process of determining the ship'sdomain where the area around the vessel should befree from stationary or moving navigationalobstacles.The calculations based on the kinematics of two-ship collision encounters conjunction with theequations of motion were presented by Kwik (1989).The analysis of a collision avoidance situation wasillustrated with respect to the vessel velocity, turningrate and direction, and the desired passing distancein the same work. The collision avoidanceconditions among ships, shore installations and otherobstacles were considered by Yavin et al. (1995). Inaddition a case study of a ship moving from onepoint to another in a narrow zigzag channel wasconsidered and a computational loop commandstrategy for the rudder control system associatedwith the numerical differential equation solver wasproposed in the same study.Ship trajectories are normally simulated bymathematical models based on maneuvering theory(e.g. Sutulo et al, 2002) although approaches basedon neural networks have also been proposed(Moreira, and Guedes Soares, 2003). Modeling of ship trajectory in collision situation by anevolutionary algorithm was presented bySmierzchalski et. al (2000) and comparison of computational time for trajectory generation withrespect to the other maneuvering algorithms werealso illustrated. Static and dynamic constrains wereconsidered for the optimization process of the safetrajectory in the same work.2 COLREGs RULES AND REGULATIONSIt is observed that the COLREGs rules andregulations with respect to collision situations inocean navigation were ignored by most of the recentliterature. The negligence of the IMO rules may leadto conflicts during collision situations. Therefore themethods ignoring COLREGs rules and regulationsshould not be implemented.On the other hand there are practical issues in theimplementation of the COLREGs rules andregulations during the ocean navigation. As anexample, there will be implementation issues of "give way” and “stand on" vessels of the COLREGsrules during the vessel navigation in a situationwhere the moving vessel or moving obstacle withvery low or very high speeds with respect to the ownvessel. Hence smart DM system must beimplemented to be consistent with the COLREGsrules and regulations and also to eliminatepreviously mentioned implementation conflicts.Similarly considerable amount of recent research hasbeen focused on design and implementation of optimization algorithms to find the safest path toavoid collision situations. It is observed that someoptimization algorithms always find the safest pathbehind the target vessel which may lead to a conflictwith the COLREGs rules and regulations.Similarly some algorithms are enforcing the ownvessel to navigate away from the target vessel orobstacle by repulsive forces from the vessel or theobstacle during the collision situations. This conceptmay lead to a conflict situation when the movingvessel with very low speed or very high speed withrespect to the own vessel. In addition, complexorientation of obstacles may lead to unavoidablecollision situations. Further, the concepts of "giveway” and “stand on" vessels that were derived on theCOLREGs rules and regulations during the vesselnavigation will not be honored in by the repulsiveforces based algorithms. Hence optimizationsalgorithms integrated with a smarter DM systemshould be considered to overcome the aboveproblems.The consideration of course changes and/or speedchanges of vessels in ocean navigation must beformulated in order to avoid critical collisionsituations. However some of the recent collisionavoidance applications have been focused onspecific controllability of either course change orspeed change. According to the COLREGs rule 8(b).“Any alteration of course and/or speed to avoidcollision shall, if the circumstances of the caseadmit, be large enough to be readily apparent toanother vessel observing visually or by radar; asuccession of small alterations of course and/orspeed should be avoided”.Hence integrated controls of course changesas well as speed changes should be implemented
 
during the vessel navigation to avoid collisionsituations. Similarly special measures should beconsidered during integrations of course and speedcontrols due to the fact that the vessels may notresponse to required changes in course or speed.3 COLLISION SITUATIONTwo vessels in a collision situation are presented inFigure 1 and the following description has beenillustrated with respect to the collision conditions.The own vessel that has implemented the DMsystem is located at the point
O
(X
o
, Y
o
), and thetarget vessel, the vessel need to be avoided is locatedat the point
A
(X
a
, Y
a
). The own and target vesselsvelocities of 
V
o
,
V
a
and course of 
ψ 
o
,
ψ 
a
respectivelyare also presented in the same figure. The relativevelocity of the target vessel with respect to the ownvessel was defined as
V
a,o
and relative speed |
V
a,o
|
 V
a,o
and course of 
ψ 
a,o
could be calculated from
V
a,o
=
V
a
-
V
o
 
(1)
Figure 1. Vessel collision situation.
In addition the relative distance and angle of thetarget vessel with respect to the own vessel arederived as the
|AO|
and
θ
o
respectively. All angleshave been measured with respect to the positive Y-axis as presented in Figure 1 and 2. The curve
AB
 represents the relative path of the target vessel withrespect to the own vessel and the collision encounterangle is presented by
θ
a,o
. The vessel relativecollision situation that is similar to a Radar plot ispresented in Figure 2. As presented in the figure thecollision regions with respect to the own vessel havebeen divided into eight regions: I, II, III, IV, V, VI,VII, and VIII.
Figure 2. Vessel relative collision situation.
These regions have been separated by thediscontinue lines that are coincided with the fuzzyregions as formulated in the fuzzy membershipfunction in Figure 4. It is assumed that any targetvessels should be located within these eight regionsand the decisions were formulated accordance toeach region. The gray circular region represents thevessel domain with the radius of R
vd
( Figure 1). Thewhite circular region represents the critical collisionrisk region due to the target vessel orientation.As presented in Figure 2, the target vesselposition at the region II has been divided into eightdivisions of target vessel orientations with respect tothe relative course regions: II-a, II-b, II-c, II-d, II-e,II-f, II-g and II-h. These divisions have beenseparated by the discontinue lines that are coincidedwith the fuzzy collision risk regions presented later.4 COLLISION AVOIDANCE METHODOLOGY4.1
Identification of Obstacles
The stationary and moving obstacles in the oceannavigation can be identified by several instrumentsand systems: Eye / camera, radar / Automatic RadarPlotting Aid (ARPA), and Automatic IdentificationSystem (AIS). ARPA provides accurate informationof range and bearing of nearby obstacles and AIS iscapable of giving all the information on vesselstructural data, position, course, and speed(Hasegawa 2009). The collection of radar data hasbeen considered as the method of identifyingstationary and moving obstacles during this study.

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