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Western Heritage Chapter 13: European State Consolidation in the 17th and 18th Centuries

Western Heritage Chapter 13: European State Consolidation in the 17th and 18th Centuries

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Published by matzahboy
A comprehensive outline of Chapter 13 in the Western Heritage AP Euro textbook. This will be helpful to anyone taking AP Euro.
A comprehensive outline of Chapter 13 in the Western Heritage AP Euro textbook. This will be helpful to anyone taking AP Euro.

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Categories:Types, Research, History
Published by: matzahboy on Nov 03, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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10/20/2014

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Chapter 13: European State Consolidation in the 17
th
and 18
th
Centuries
Introduction
Europe began to dominate the world
Military and economic strength
Only time period that this happened (ended in WWII)
Shift in power away from Spain and Portugal to England and France
Spain declined after Spanish War of Succession
Causes
HRE weak after Treaty of Westphalia (1648)
The Netherlands: Golden Age to Decline
The seven states became independent of Spain in 1672
The Netherlands had several naval battles with England
King Henry XIV invaded the Netherlands
William of Orange and the hereditary chief executive (stadtholder) rallied the Dutch againstthem
Remained a Republic
Each of the 7 states had a say
Met in Estates General
Holland had considerable influence
Very different than most of Europe
During military struggle, they would allow a powerful leader to take charge (such as William III fromthe House of Orange), but after the crisis, they would become a Republic again
William died in 1702
Allowed religious tolerance
Calvinist Reformed Church was the official church, but other religions were allowed
Became a haven for Jews
Urban Prosperity
Very economically prosperous
A huge percentage of Dutch lived in cities
More than any other European nation
There was a cheap, steady supply of grain
Allowed farmers to produce more profitable products
Fisherman sold tons of herring
Exported textiles to other European countries
Dutch had an amazing sea empire
Replaced Portugal as the #1 East Asia spice trader 
Most advanced finance system at the time
Economic Decline
After William died, the provinces did not want another stadtholder (i.e. very powerful leader)
Disunity led to decreased political influence
Lost their sea dominance to England
Domestic industries declined (politically disunity prevented action that could have halted this)
Countries that the Dutch had shipped goods between now traded directly with each other 
The one good thing: The financial industry
 
Banks financed many European governments
The Amsterdam Stock Exchange
Two Models of European Political Development 
Different kinds of monarchies
Chosen because of history
Wars required a lot of money. The monarchs who could raise the funds without the help of thenobles could achieve political absolutism. The others had to rely on a monarchy
Parliamentary monarchy
England
Under Elizabeth's rule, the monarchy became stronger 
The Stuarts envied France's political absolutism (Louise XIV)
Political Absolutism
France
Strong until religious wars
During Henry IV's rule (1589), the monarchy was weak 
Had a religious toleration policy
The nobles rebelled against the king
Constitutional Crisis and the Settlement in Stuart England 
James I
Son of Mary Queen of Scotts
Ruled Scotland as James VI from 1567-1603
1603: succeeded Elizabeth for the English throne
Wanted to rule England as absolutely as possible
Used impositions to raise money, rather than parliament
Parliament only met when he told them to (not very often)
Religious problems
Puritans wanted to end big religious ceremonies
Hampton Court conference (January 1604): James says that he will strengthen, rather than weaken, Anglican episcopacy.
ended up moving to America (Plymouth Colony and Massachusetts Bay Colony)
Failed to lessen penalties against Catholics
Scandal
Played favorites (duke of Buckingham)
Some even thought that he was James' homosexual lover 
Foreign policy problems
Tried to have his son, Charles marry a Spanish princess, but failed. In 1625, he later marriedHenrietta Marie, the Catholic daughter of Henry IV of France
Made peace with Spain
Refused to aid German Protestants at the beginning of the 30 years war 
In 1624, Parliament pressured him to declare war on Spain
Charles I
Wanted to go to war with Spain, but Parliament would not give him funds
Created new taxes
Made a forced loan
Property owners had to pay this tax that would be paid back to them
Those who refused were incarcerated
 
Quartered troops
Petition of Right (1628)
The king cannot quarter troops. He can't tax without Parliament's consent. He can't levy aforced loan.
Parliament would only give Charles funds if he signed it
He signed it, but later dissolved Parliament until 1640
Years of Personal Rule
Conserving money
Made peace with Spain and France (1629 & 1630)
Thomas Wentworth (chief adviser) used every tax allowed by the law to raise money
Religious problems with Scotland
Tried to impose Anglican religion on Scotland
Scots rebelled
Tried to get Parliament's money, but Parliament refused until he addressed a bunchof issues
Called the Short Par 
English army was defeated at the Battle of Newburn
Parliament convened and was here to stay
The Long Parliament and Civil War 
Long Parliament: 1640-1660
Passed numerous laws limiting King's power 
could not raise taxes without Parliament
could not dissolve Parliament. Also, Parliament had to meet at least once every 3 years
Divided religiously
Puritans wanted to abolish Book of Common Prayer 
Religious conservatives did not want change
When Charles wanted to raise army to squash Scottish rebellion, Parliament distrusted him and wouldnot give him an army (October 1641)
Parliament raised its own army
King invaded Parliament in January 1642 and tried to arrest 5 opposition members (but theyescaped)
Parliament and King began to fight
Cavaliers: supporters of the King
Roundheads: supporters of Parliament
Oliver Cromwell and the Puritan Republic
Parliament allied with Scotland in 1643
Oliver Cromwell organized the Parliament army
Parliament defeated Charles in 1645
Later beheaded him in 1650
Cromwell established a Puritan Republic
Became a supreme leader 
Brutally took over Scotland and Ireland
Disbanded Parliament when Parliament wanted to disband his 50k army.
Charles II and the Restoration of the Monarchy
Charles II returned to England to end the Puritan rule
People loved this, because Puritan's were boring
He was secretly Catholic
Favored religious tolerance
1660-1665: Clarindon Code

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