Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
9Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Philosophy for Children and the Reconstruction of Philosophy

Philosophy for Children and the Reconstruction of Philosophy

Ratings: (0)|Views: 293|Likes:
Published by David Kennedy

More info:

Published by: David Kennedy on Nov 03, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

10/21/2010

pdf

text

original

 
©
MetaphilosopbyLLCandBlackwellPublishersLtd.1999.PublishedbyBlackwellPublisbers,
108
CowleyRoad,OxfordOX4UF,
UK
and350MainStreet,Malden,
MA02148,USA
METAPHILOSOPHYVol.30,
No.4,
October
1999
0026-1068
PHILOSOPHY
FOR
CHILDREN
AND
THERECONSTRUCTION
OF
PIDLOSOPHY
DAVID
KENNEDY
ABSTRACT:
In
thispaper1tracethedialogicalandnarrativedimensions
of
thephilosophicaltraditionandexplorehowtheyarereconfiguredinthenotion
of
community
of
philosophicalinquiry(CPI),themainstay
of
thecollection
of
novelsanddiscussionplansknownasPhilosophyforChildren.Afterconsideringtheontologyandepistemology
of
dialogue,Iarguethatnarrativehasreplacedexposition
in
ourunderstanding
of
philosophicaldiscourseandthat
cpr
representsanarrativecontextinwhichtruthcomes
to
representthebeststory,
in
adiscursivelocation
in
whichtherearealwaysmultiplestories.Finally,Iraisetheissue
of
children'sphilosophicalvoice.Canchildrenphilosophize,and
if
theycan,dotheydoso
in
avoicedifferentfromadults'?
lfso,
whatarethedistinctivefeatures
of
thatvoice?1assertthatit
is
children'shistoricalmarginalizationintheWesternconstruction
of
rationalitythatnow-asthatrationalityundergoesitscrisismakes
of
them,likewomenandother"natives,"privilegedstrangerstothetradition,whoare,throughCPl,enabledtoenteritthroughdialogueandnarrative.Keywords:community
of
inquiry,dialogue,narrative,philosophyforchildren.
Itisanironicandcompellingcuriosity
of
PhilosophyforChildren
I
thatitsimplicationsforthetheoryandpractice
of
philosophyaresomuchmoresignificantthanmightbeexpected
of
aneducationalprogramdesignedforschoolchildren.Whatcouldaseries
of
somewhatpedestrianjuvenilenovels,eachcombinedwithamanualbrimmingwithunsequencedexercisesanddiscussionplans,saytothehistoricalmoment
of
West
em
philosophy
in
thelargersense?
It
mayseemanabsurdclaimthatthisapparentlysimpleeducationaltoolcouldleadustoreconsidersomefundamentalnotionsaboutthenature,activity,anduse
of
thetraditionasawhole.ButIwanttosuggestthatwhathasbeeninvented/discoveredinPhilosophyforChildrenmodelsaway
of
conceptualizinganddoingphilosophywhich,
I
MatthewLipmaninauguratedthePhilosophyforChildrenprogramin1969with
HarryStottlemeir'sDiscovery
-
thefirstphilosophicalnovel
in
aserieswhichnowincludesmne,each
of
whichisaccompanied
by
amanualincludingdiscussionexercisesandactivitiesandconceptualexplanations.TheprogramcoversgradesK-12andisimplementedinternationally.TeachertrainingandcurriculumdevelopmentareconductedattheInstitutefortheAdvancementofPbilosophyforChildren
(!APC)
atMontclairStateUniversity,NewJersey.
©
MetaphilosophyLLCandBlackwellPublishersLtd.1999
 
PHILOSOPHYFORCHILDREN
339althoughit
has
beenimplicitinthetraditionfromthebeginning,hasnever
been
exploredexcept
tacitly
and
episodically.
The
areasin
which
PhilosophyforChildrenrepresentsbothaninnovation
and
afulfillment
of
themesalreadypresentinthetraditionfallbroadly
under
theconcepts
of
dialogue
and
narrative.
The
formerisparticularlyimportant,asitformsthebasis
of
the
program's
methodology,knownascommunity
of
philosophicalinquiry(Cpr).
The
experience
of
the
communal
dialoguewhichisthegroundingpractice
of
CPI
bringsusfacetofacewiththeoriginalcondition
of
philosophy:philosophy
not
just
asconversation,
but
asanemergent,multivocal,
and
interactivestoryabouttheworld
and
aboutpersonsthinking
about
theworld.
Morethan
anytraditionaldeconstruction
of
thetradition,
cpr
subvertstheonto-theologicaldiscoursemodeluponwhichphilosophyhastradedsinceAristotle,
if
notPlato.Theaim
of
thefollowinginquiryis
to
explorethedialogicalandnarrativeroots
of
thephilosophicalenterpriseandtoexplorehowtheyarereconfiguredinCPI.This
will
involvethinkingabouttheontologyandepistemology
of
dialogue,howdialogueisexpressed
in
thephilosophicaltradition,
and
howitoperates
in
CPI.
The
inquirythenmovestoaconsideration
of
hownarrativehasreplacedexposition
in
ourunderstanding
of
philosophicaldiscourse,
and
howCPIrepresentsanembodiednarrativecontext
in
whichtruthcomestorepresentthebeststory,
in
adiscursivelocationinwhichtherearealwaysmultiplestories.Finally,theissue
of
children'sphilosophicalvoiceisraised:Canchildrenphilosophize?
If
theycan,isit
in
adifferentvoicethanadults?
Ifso,
what
arethedistinctivefeatures
of
thatvoice?Iwanttoclaimthatitischildren'shistoricalmarginalizationintheWesternconstruction
of
rationalitywhich,now-asthatrationalityundergoesitscrisis-makes
of
them,likewomenandother"natives,"privilegedstrangerstothetradition.Likeallvoicesfromthemargins,theirsareprophetic
in
regard
to
thetradition,which,asitopensitselftohearthem,istransformed.Dialogue
and
Alterity
The
theory
and
practice
of
dialogue
itself
havereceivedincreasingattentioninthiscentury,from
Buber
toLevinas,toGadamer,toSchilder,Bakhtin,
and
Habermas.
Buber
made
the
firstdirectexploration
of
theontology
of
dialogueand
showed
ittobeafundamentalinterhumanphenomenon.
For
him,dialogueisnot
just
aform
of
discourse-or,rather,itisdiscursivetotheextentthatthestructure
of
embodied
existenceisdiscursive.Dialogueemergesinthe
"between"
amongpersons,aspace
of
play,difference,Liminality,2
and
transcendence,in
which
boundariesare,
if
2
"Liminality"
is
fromtheLatinword
limen,
meaning"threshold."Itwasadoptedasapsychologicaltermintheearlynineteenthcentury
to
refertothelimitbelowwhichagivensensationceases
to
beperceptible.
It
hasbeenused
in
thelatetwentiethcenturybyanthropologists,philosophers,andliterarycriticstoevoketheambiguity
of
boundaries-whetherintra-
or
interpsychological,cultural,
or
discursive.
©
MetaphilosophyLLCandBlackwellPublishersLtd.1999
I.
 
340
DAVID
KENNEDY
notrenounced,thenputatrisk.Themoment
of
theputting-in-question
of
boundariesisthemomentinwhichthedialogicalstructure
of
beingemergesmostclearlyandopensaspace
of
transformativepotential.Throughitsinterplay,boundariesarecontinuallybeingreconfigured-notjustconceptualboundaries,butintersubjectiveandsocialonesaswell.Thereisnosuchthingas
just
adialogue
of
ideas.DialoguecharacterizesCPIsocompletelybecauseitemergesinadiscursivelocationinwhichallpropositionsarealreadyinquestion.Dialogueisnotataking
of
positions,butamutualpositioningwithinaspace
of
interrogationwhichischaracterizedbyself-othering,orexperiencing
self
as
an
other.
In
dialogue,weenterintotheexperience
of
liveddifference-wenolongeroperatefromtheposition
of
theboundaried,thematizingsubject.
In
dialoguethereisadecentering
of
thetranscendentalego.Assuch,it
is
ahermeneuticalexperience,fortheoperationalspace
of
hermeneutics,asHughSilverman(1986)pointsout,is
between-
"betweensubjectandobject,groundandnon-ground,thinkerandthought,speakerandspokenabout,knowerandthatwhichistobeknown"(89).Buber's(1970)mostimportantcontributiontoatheory
of
dialoguemayhavebeentoshowuswhat
it
isnotandtopointoutitsstructuralvulnerabilitytobeingunderminedbyobjectification,orwhathecalledthe
"I-It"
form
of
intersubjectivity.
In
fact,wewouldnothavetheexperienceortheconcept
of
dialoguewithoutitsabsence;botharewovenintotheearliesthumanexperience.Dialogueoffersthepossibility
of
atransitiontoacondition
of
unitywhichinitsverystructureityetdenies,foritemergesonlyafterapriortransitionfromunityintodifference.Itisadoublemovement,alwaysinmotiontowardarecoveredunity,butneverarriving.Gadamer(1976)characterizesitas
"a
travelingaparttowardunity"(24),amovementinwhichthewholeisalwaysimplicit,andyetmovementtranspiresthroughdivisionanddifferentiation.
3
AlthoughBuber'sinterpretationallowsandperhapsevensetsthestageforthedialecticalmovementthatGadamer
is
mainlyconcernedtoexplore,hisontologypositsadualityattheheart
of
existence;anddialogue,althoughitisallwehavetoovercomethatduality,canneverdomorethanexpressit.Buberdoesinvoke"theoriginalrelationalcharacter
of
theappearance
of
allbeings"-yetthatoriginaryconditionisset
just
outside
of
time,forobjectificationisimplicitthemomenteitherthe"primitivemind"orthechildhasrecognizeditselfasan
"I."
"Thesublimemelancholy
of
ourlot,"hesays,isthat
everyYoumustbecomeanItinourworld.Everyyou
in
theworldisdoomedbyitsnaturetobecomeathingoratleasttoenterintothinghoodagainandagain
....
The
It
isthechrysalis,theYouthebutterfly.Onlyitisnotalwaysas
if
thesestatestookturnssoneatly;oftenit
is
anintricatelyentangledseries
of
eventsthatistortuouslydual.(1970,71,68-69)
3
SeeGadamer1980,1986.
For
asummary
of
histheory
of
dialogue,seeKennedy1990.
©
MetaphilosophyLLCandBlackwellPublishersLtd.1999
).

Activity (9)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
carujo liked this
davemarkniel liked this
gzaly liked this
art.info liked this
malidombayci liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->