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Chapter4 About Antenna & Feeder Cable

Chapter4 About Antenna & Feeder Cable

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Published by welliejinx
notes on radio planning, celll planning chapter 1-11
notes on radio planning, celll planning chapter 1-11

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Published by: welliejinx on Nov 03, 2009
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Wireless Network PlanningTable of Contents
Table of Contents
1.1 Basics of Antenna .............................................................................................................11.1.1 Antenna gain ..........................................................................................................11.1.2 Directional Diagram ................................................................................................11.1.3 Polarization .............................................................................................................31.1.4 Other technical indicators of antenna .....................................................................41.1.5 Antenna diversity ....................................................................................................61.1.6 Three-sector base station antenna selection derivation ..........................................81.2 Antenna new technology .................................................................................................101.2.1 Shaped beam technology .....................................................................................101.2.2 Intelligent Antenna ................................................................................................121.3 Antenna Dip AngleDowntilt Planning ...............................................................................191.3.1 Antenna Dip AngleDowntilt Design .......................................................................191.3.2 Practical Application .............................................................................................221.4 Antenna Selection ...........................................................................................................251.4.1 Current Problems of Using Antenna .....................................................................251.4.2 Application Principle for Base Station Antenna in Urban Areas ............................251.4.3 Application Principle for Suburb Base Station Antenna ........................................261.4.4 Application principle for base station antennas in rural areas ...............................261.4.5 Application principle for antennas to cover highroads ...........................................271.4.6 Other factors in antenna application .....................................................................281.4.7 Notes on special antennas ...................................................................................281.4.8 Reference for antenna selection ...........................................................................301.5 Combining and distribution unit.......................................................................................311.5.1 Principle for combining and distribution unit.........................................................311.5.2 Combining and distribution unit configuration .......................................................331.6 Outdoor antenna feeder system ......................................................................................351.6.1 Tower amplifier .....................................................................................................351.6.2 Feeder lineFeeder cable .......................................................................................361.7 Distributed antenna system .............................................................................................381.7.1 Principle for composition of distributed antenna system .......................................381.7.2 Types of distributed antenna system ....................................................................391.7.3 Indexes for component key technologies ..............................................................40
i
 
Wireless Network PlanningChapter 4 About Antenna Feede
Chapter 1 About Antenna & Feeder cable
1.1 Basics of Antenna
In a wireless communiction system, the antenna system serves as an interface withthe exterior media. Antenna radiation and receive radio wave: in transmission, theantenna works to convert high frequency current into electromagnetic wave; whilereceiving, it converts electromagnetic wave into high frequency current. Antenna canbe divided into the following types in light of their work frequency band: untra-longwave, long wave, medium wave, short wave, ultrashort wave and mircowave; it isdivided into the following types in terms of direction: omni-antenna and directionalantena; it is divided into the following types in terms of its structual features: linear antenna and dish antenna. The model, gain, directoinal diagram, driving antennapower, simple or complicated antenna configuration and atenna polarization etc willaffect system performance.
1.1.1 Antenna gain
Gain is one of the most important parameters for the antenna system. The definitionof antennagainis related to ominidirectional antenna or half-wave dipole antenna.The ominidirectional radiator is one that assumes radiating equal power in all thedirections. The antenna gain in a directionamounts toisthe ratio of thefluxpower  density to that of ideal point source or half-wave dipole in the maxium radiationdirection (dB refers to the difference). See Figure 4-1 for the diagram.
dBddBi
Ideal isolated wave source
Theoretical half wave dipole
directional antenna
Figure 4-1
Gain Comparison
dBi indicates that antenna gain is the reference value of directional antenna relative tothe ominidirectional radiator, while dBd is the reference value relative to half-wavedipole antenna. The relation between these two is expressed as follows:
dB
i
=
dB
+
2.15
.
1.1.2 Directional Diagram
The directional diagram describes the dirstribution of antenna radiationelectromagenetic field according to angular coordinate within a fixed range. The
1
 
Wireless Network PlanningChapter 4 About Antenna Feede
directional diagram expressed in radiation filed strength is called field strengthdirectional diagram; expressed in power indensity, it is called phase directionaldirectional diagram.The antenna directional diagram is a space solid figure. But the one in commonapplication is a directional diagram inside two principal planes perpendicular to eachother, known as plane directional diagram. For linear antenna, as the ground hasgreat effect, it adopts vertical plane and horizontal plane as its principal plan. The planantenna adopts E plane and H plane as the two principal planes. The maxium of normalization direction diagram is 1.The radiation lobe required in the maximum radiation direction in the directionaldiagram is called antenna major lobe, also known as antenna beam. The lobes other than the major lobe are called secondary lobe or side lobe or parasite lobe. The sidelobe in the direction opposite to the major lobe is called back lobe as shown in Figure4-2(a): diagram of omni-antenna horizontal lobe and vertical lobe, where the antennais in the shape of a column; 4-2(b): diagram of horizontal lobe and vertical lobe for directional antenna, where its antenna in the shape of a board.
Figure 4-2(a)
Diagram of omni-antenna lobe
Figure 4-2(b)
Diagram of directoinal antenna lobe
The parameters commonly used for antenna diectional diagram include the following:
Zero power lobe width refers to the included angle between the two
2

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