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Chapter5 Design of Wireless Network

Chapter5 Design of Wireless Network

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Published by welliejinx
notes on radio planning, celll planning chapter 1-11
notes on radio planning, celll planning chapter 1-11

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Published by: welliejinx on Nov 03, 2009
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06/07/2012

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Wireless Network PlanningTable of Contents
Table of Contents
1.1 Design of Base Station Address ........................................................................................11.2 Design of Parameters for Base Station Project.................................................................31.2.1 Environment for Antenna Installation ......................................................................31.2.2 Antenna Separation in GSM System ......................................................................51.2.3 Antenna Separation Form GSM and CDMA Base Station ......................................51.2.4 Antenna Installation Interval...................................................................................81.3 Link Budget.....................................................................................................................111.3.1 Link Budget Model................................................................................................111.3.2 Reference point for base station sensitivity ..........................................................121.4 Design of Coverage Area ................................................................................................151.5 Capacity Distribution .......................................................................................................171.5.1 Voice channel distribution .....................................................................................171.5.2 Configuration of control channel...........................................................................191.6 Location Area Design ......................................................................................................201.6.1 Definition of location area .....................................................................................201.6.2 Division of location areas ......................................................................................211.6.3 Calculation of location areas .................................................................................241.7 Design of Indoor Coverage System ................................................................................261.7.1 Design of indoor antenna system .........................................................................261.7.2 Capacity Analysis and Design ..............................................................................331.7.3 Frequency Plan .....................................................................................................351.8 Design of Cell Data .........................................................................................................36
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Wireless Network PlanningChapter 5 Design of Wireless Network
Chapter 1 Design of Wireless Network
The most important of all in designing a wireless network concerns the design of network layout. Such work involves the following in detail:(1) Decide the way of frequency multiplexing in light of frequency bandwidth;(2) Estimate the number of base stations required for the network based onexperience;(3) Determine the theoretic position of the base station;(4) Estimate network capacity;(5) Assume parameters relevant to the base station (hierarchical structure of thenetwork, transmitting power, antenna type, height to be hung, direction and angle of declination etc.);On the basis of determining the basic layout of base station, plan the frequency andadjacent areas, and then complete the related cell data, so as to accomplish theentire planning process.
1.1
Design of Base Station Address
In planning a wireless network, the design of base station address should generallymeet the following requirements:(1) The address should serve to meet the objective of rational cell structure; make acomprehensive analysis using an electronic map and a paper map of the urban area(information about ground objects and surface relief preferred). Standby stationaddress is required in the course of selecting a base station. For this purpose, it isrequired to consider the overall network structure, and make a choice in such major respects as coverage, anti-interference and traffic balance. In practice, the operator ispossibly required to consult with the proprietors as to the station to be chosen. Ingeneral, the station address should be arranged within a range of 1/4 radius of cellular base station (r for minimum width). It is allowed to choose several standbystation addresses within this range.During the stage where the network is established and there are few base stations,the station should be generally located at the center of an area where most of thesubscribers live. In designing a station address, top priority should be given toensuring good communication in special areas such as the place of governmentalagencies, airport, railway station, news center and major hotels and avoid overlappingcoverage in these areas; for other areas requiring coverage, station addresses shouldbe designed in accordance with standard cellular structure, while address selectionfor suburbs, highroads and rural areas with a large area to be covered is free of limiton cellular meshes;(2) Without affecting the layout of base stations, existing telecommunicationsbuildings and post offices should be chosen as the station address, so that their facilities such as equipment room, power supply and iron tower can be fully utilized;(3) Point the major lobe of antenna to the areas with dense traffic so as to enhancethe signal intensity in this area and thus improve the communication quality; deviatethe direction of antenna’s major lobe from co-frequency cells, so as to controlinterference in an effective way.
In urban areas, it is recommended that the overlappingcoverage of antenna in adjacent sectors should not exceed 10% in depth; the overlappingdepth of cover between the coverage a
reas in suburbs and towns with the directionalincluded angle of the sectors no less than 90
°.
Attention should also be paid to thecorrespondence between the carrier wave number and the cell in designing. A larger 
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Wireless Network PlanningChapter 5 Design of Wireless Network
number of carrier wave should be configured for a cell of high density.In designing an azimuth angle, it should be determined not only based on thedistribution of traffic around each base station but also from the perspective of theoverall network. In general, it is recommended to adopt, if possible, the same azimuthfor each urban base station, in order not to make it complicated to plan the networkwhen the cell breaks apart in the future; to avoid trans-regional coverage, the major antenna lobe in populous downtown area should be kept from facing a straight street.In places such as outskirts and trunk roads, the antenna bearing should be adjustedin light of the objects to be covered.(4) Generally, high mountains in urban areas or suburbs(over 200
300 metershigher than the urban areas in altitude above sea level ) are not regarded as stationaddresses in order to prevent co-frequency interference and avoid areas with weaksignals within their respective coverage areas, and to ease the difficulty inengineering construction and make it easy for maintenance;(5) New base stations should be installed in places, where traffic is convenient,electric supply is available, the environment is safe without occupying much fertileland; such places should not be near high-power radio transmitting station or other interference sources, whose intensity should not exceed the indexes for the shield of base station equipment against useless radiation;(6) The designed station address should be kept far away from the forest so as toavoid the fading of receiving signals;(7) The designed station address must ensure the transmission link between it andthe base station controller is connected well;(8) Attention must be paid to the effect of time dispersion in choosing an address frommountainous areas, limnological regions with steep banks or many lakes, hills, citiesand an environment with high buildings. The address for a base station should be aplace near reflecting objects or put the directional antenna back on to the reflectingobjects when the base station is far away;  Note:Time dispersion mainly refers to the problem of cofrequency interference arising fromthe time difference between master signals arriving at the receiver and other multipath signals in terms of time for transmission in space (transmission distance);according to GSM protocol, the receiver equalizer must be equipped with a timewindow of 16 ms (equivalent to 4.8 Km). Multipath signals with a time window lessthan 16 ms are harmless and even instrumental; but those with a time window of over 16 ms are regarded as the cofrequency interference signals against the master signals. In this case, it is required to consider whether the level difference betweenthem meets C/I value, that is, master signals are over 12dB greater than the multi-path signals. The time window of Huawei receivers is more than 20ms.(9) While choosing an address form urban high buildings, the height of building maybe wisely used to classify the network structure; the antennas for major base stationsshould be a litter taller than the average height of buildings. In general, the basestation antenna in populous urban areas should be as high as 25
30 meters but it is40
50 meters in the suburbs (or pointing to suburb cells);(10) In choosing an address for highroads or mountain coverage, we should make themost of land features, such an open area as the turn of a highroad.
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