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Grammar Definitions

Grammar Definitions

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Published by: gretagarbo0 on Nov 04, 2009
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01/27/2011

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GRAMMAR DEFINITIONS
According to Moya (2009), grammar (in the field of linguistics) studies andestablishes the rational and structural regulations regarding the suitablearrangement of sentences, phrases and words in a language system(morphology and syntax).
Traditional Grammar
According to Williams (2005)“It is concerned primarily with correctness andwith the categorical names for the words that make up sentences. Thus,students study grammatical terms and certain “rules” that are supposed tobe associated with correctness.”
Prescriptive Grammar
Williams (2005) said that prescriptive grammar sets up what people have todo with language according to what is established in the set of grammarrules.
Descriptive Grammar
It studies the structure of a language as it is actually used by nativespeakers.
Formal Grammar
It regards to the set of rules that regulate the configuration of speech(succession of symbols), without having into consideration semantics.
Informal Grammar
It shows the grammar as a range of options of what you can do, instead of what you cannot do. Formal grammar is focused in the meaning of thegrammar when using it for creating sentences, phrases, and paragraphs.
THE GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD
According to Larsen (2000) the main goal of the Grammar Translationmethod is that students memorize the target language and learn grammarrules. Also they have to read literature written in the target language andtranslate it into their L1 or vice versa. Larsen stated that evaluation isaccomplished through written exams in which students are asked totranslate texts or to answer questions related about the target languagethey had learned. Other important characteristics she mentioned are: thatL1 is used in the classroom and error is forbidden.
PARTS OF SPEECH
Adjectives
In English as in Spanish, adjectives are words that qualify or determine nouns. But in Spanishthey posses a gender and a number, and both have to agree with the subject. Gender and number 
 
are given by a lexeme or root. Adjectives take the noun´s gender, so there are two forms: onethat is variable for masculine and feminine ( e.g.: o/a: malo/mala, e/a: rubiete/rubieta, n/a: bailarin/bailarina). Besides these, there are some adjectives in Spanish which are constant for masculine and feminine, e.g. infantil/rebelde.
Adverbs
In Spanish as in English, the adverbs occupation is to modify, determine, vary or amplify themeaning of a verb, adjective or adverb. They are invariable, there are only some exceptions. Justsome of them accept suffixation morphemes (e.g. Ahora - ahorita) , and these morphemes don´thave concordant(e.g. La niña está
mal)
.. Adverbs, as linguistic resources, sometimes modify awhole sentence (e.g.
 Increíblemente
, Carmen vino.).
Verb
In both; Spanish and English, verb is the vital element of the predicate. It describes the action performed by the noun, also; it indicates process and condition. Simply verbs are formed by oneword; run, eat; caminar, cocinar. Compound verbs (compound tenses) are formed by two words;habia cantado, habrá partido; run-up, climb-down. And also there are in Spanish “perífrasisverbales”: volvió a temer, voy a partir. Verb admits grammatical categories of time, state, aspectand voice. Besides the one of the personal and possessives pronouns and number.
Article
In English they don´t posses gender. And there are only few:Singular : –a / –an singular /plural : the.In Spanish it is a determiner, it accompanies the subject and informs about the gender andnumber of the subject. There are two types of articles: determined and undetermined.Determined articles:Singular, masculine:
el;
Singular, femenine:
la;
 singular, neutral:
lo;
  plural, masculine:
los;
plural, femenine:
las.
 Undetermined articles:Singular, masculine:
un
o
uno;
 Singular, femenine:
una;
 Plural, masculine:
unos;
 Plural, femenine:
unas.
 *There is no neutral plural form.
Conjunction
In Spanish as in Englihs it “conjuncts”, links, connects sentences or words, or establishesrelation between them. (Carmen trabaja
 , pero
no todos los días.). There are two types of conjunctions: coordinate conjunctions, which coordinate sentences; El perro es mi amigo
 y
loquiero mucho. And subordínate conjunctions which introduce sentences that function assubjects, adjectives, etc: Me voy a la cama,
que
estoy cansada.
Preposition

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