1 CDMA1.1 Definition of CDMA
Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a channel access method utilized by variousradio communication technologies. It should not be confused with the mobile phonestandards called cdmaOne and CDMA2000 (which are often referred to as simply "CDMA"),which use CDMA as an underlying channel access method.In CDMA systems, the narrowband message signal is multiplied by a very large bandwidth signal called the spreading signal. The spreading signal is a pseudo-noise codesequence that has a chip rate which is orders of magnitudes greater than the data rate of themessage. All users in a CDMA system use the same carrier frequency and may transmitsimultaneously. Each user has its own pseudorandom codeword which is approximatelyorthogonal to all other code words.Figure: CDMA in which each channel is assigned a unique PN code which isorthogonal to PN codes used by other user CDMA is a form of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum communications. In general,Spread Spectrum communications is distinguished by three key elements:1.The signal occupies a bandwidth much greater than that which is necessary to sendthe information. This results in many benefits, such as immunity to interferenceand jamming and multi-user access, which we’ll discuss later on.2.The bandwidth is spread by means of a code which is independent of the data. Theindependence of the code distinguishes this from standard modulation schemes inwhich the data modulation will always spread the spectrum somewhat.3. The receiver synchronizes to the code to recover the data. The use of an independentcode and synchronous reception allows multiple users to access the samefrequency band at the same time.