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Economic security

Economic security

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The ICRC's work to promote economic security is intended to ensure that households and communities can cover their unavoidable expenditures and maintain or restore sustainable livelihoods.

ICRC, Geneva, 2008, 8 pp., graph., tabl., 15 x 21 cm, English, French / Free of charge / ref. 0954

http://www.icrc.org/web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/html/p0954
The ICRC's work to promote economic security is intended to ensure that households and communities can cover their unavoidable expenditures and maintain or restore sustainable livelihoods.

ICRC, Geneva, 2008, 8 pp., graph., tabl., 15 x 21 cm, English, French / Free of charge / ref. 0954

http://www.icrc.org/web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/html/p0954

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Categories:Types, Brochures
Published by: International Committee of the Red Cross on Nov 04, 2009
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

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01/30/2013

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ECONOMIC SECURITY
IN BRIEF
ECONOMIC SECURITY
The ICRC defnes economic securityas the condition o an individual,household or community that isable to cover its essential needsand unavoidable expendituresin a sustainable manner, accordingto its cultural standards.Needs include ood, shelter,access to health care, education,and taxes, among others.Food alone is not sufcient.
    A   n   a    G   e   r    l    i   n    H   e   r   n   a   n    d   e   z    B   o   n    i    l    l   a    /    I    C    R    C
Because public health is viewed globally,Economic Security programmes are closelyconnected to eorts in complementary elds:Health programmes (hospital management,rst aid) and Water and Habitat programmes(access to water and proper sanitation). Allthese activities depend on reliable and e-cient logistical support.In all cases, because o the ICRC’s overarchingmandate o protecting the victims o armedconfict, economic security operations combineas much as possible with protection eorts.
 
WARNING SIGNALS ADAPTATIONIMPOVERISHMENTCAPITAL LOSSDESTITUTIONDEVELOPMENTCONSOLIDATIONECONOMIC RECOVERYPHYSICAL RECOVERYDEATH OF THE SYSTEM
TYPES OF AID
Relie aid
Relie aid is primarily intended to save lives andprotect livelihoods when they are at immedi-ate risk in pre-crisis or acute crisis situations. This is done by giving people access to goodsessential or their survival (such as householditems, ood, seed and tools) when they can nolonger obtain them on their own. Aid o thiskind should be combined with dialogue withparties that are in a position to enhance theprotection o the people concerned.
Livelihood supportProduction aid
is intended to spur ood pro-
duction and/or generate income, and ultim-
ately to restore sustainable livelihoods in
pre-crisis, chronic crisis and post-crisis environ-
ments. This means preserving household or
community productive assets.Production aid takes the orm o the vaccina-tion, culling and restocking o livestock herds,
the distribution of agricultural implements,
seed and ishing tackle, micro-economic initia-tives and capacity-building eorts.
CRISIS
Degree o Crisis
 The ICRC has deined our degrees o crisisregarding the coverage o essential needs,(see above). The Economic Security Unit as-sesses needs at household level in order toobtain irst-hand local inormation.
Crisis Security Responses
Responses vary with the degree of crisis.
In pre-crisis and acute crisis situations,
•
the response meets essential needs. The aim is to save lives.In chronic crisis and post-crisis situations,
•
the response promotes economicconsolidation and/or reconstruction. The aim is to support livelihoods.
Different modes of action may be combined :
substitution : the direct provision o services
•
(
in lieu
o service providers that have ailedto cover essential needs) ;support to local service providers ;
•
persuasion o relevant authorities to
•
shoulder their responsibilities ;mobilization o third parties to act, or to
•
persuade relevant authorities to do so.
Crisis Process
 The ollowing diagram helps to explain ICRCactivities that promote economic security.Relie aid aims to save lives or halt economicdecline (illustrated by the descending curve).Livelihood support aims to restore economicsecurity, in particular when recovery is underway (illustrated by the climbing curve). Live-lihood support consists o production aidand structural aid (see below).
    V    i   r   g    i   n    i   e    L   o   u    i   s    /    I    C    R    C
PRE-CRISIS
Essential needsare stil covered,but at risk of no longerbeing addressed.
 ACUTE CRISIS
Some essentialneeds are no longercovered.
CHRONIC CRISIS
Essential needs areinsufficiently covered,and acute crisiscould resume.
POST-CRISIS
Essential needs arecovered by structurewhose sustainabilityremains fragile.ESSENTIAL NEEDS COVERED
    D   o   m    i   n    i   c    S   a   n   s   o   n    i    /    I    C    R    C
 
Structural aid, 
urnished mainly in chroniccrisis and post-crisis settings, is intended torevive the output o sustainable productiveassets (such as crops) by encouraging serviceproviders and other parties concerned to pro-vide the required input, such as seed andtools. It may also be used to promote improve-ments in such areas as agricultural extensionservices and State-delivered social welareprogrammes.
NUTRITION
Many, i not most, o the communities the ICRCis working to help ace a daily struggle to meettheir essential needs, especially or ood. Anadequate understanding o the circumstancessurrounding this struggle is thereore o para-mount importance.In conned environments such as prisons andhospitals, this analysis provides the basis orthe response to inmate and patient health.Responses include eeding programmes andsupport to ood handling and processing. Theyshould complement other programmes thataim at restoring economic independence.
    B   o   r    i   s    H   e   g   e   r    /    I    C    R    C
FOOD PRODUCTION
Support or ood production is part o theICRC’s eorts to boost economic security.Because its response to observed needs iscomprehensive, it gains insight not only intothe consequences but also into the causes o armed confict and tension.
MICRO-ECONOMICINITIATIVES
Micro-economic initiatives aim to strengthenincome generation in households and entirecommunities in a sustainable manner and ina set time rame. The projects are tailored to meet individualneeds, as expressed by the recipients. The most commonly
 
used micro-economictools are productive grants, vocational train-ing and small loans.
    C   a   r    l   o   s    R    i   o   s    /    I    C    R    C    L   e    i   g    h    D   a   y   n   e   s    /    C    R    R   o   y   a   u   m   e  -    U   n    i
TRAININGCourses or training sta andkey partners (such as NationalSociety sta) accompanieseconomic security programmesworldwide, and is deliveredby qualifed national sta andexpatriate teams.Production aid can be deliveredby means o grants or services.Other stakeholders should beencouraged to take action and/orpersuade the authorities to do so.Nutritionists take part in ICRCsurveys o needs and helpassess living conditions andgauge coping mechanisms.Livestock issues and plant produc-tion are central to this type o intervention. Agricultural supportis in act pivotal to most ICRCEcoSec activities in rural settings,especially in Arica but not only.
    O    l    i   v    i   e   r    M   o   e   c    k    l    i    /    I    C    R    C

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