WARNING SIGNALS ADAPTATIONIMPOVERISHMENTCAPITAL LOSSDESTITUTIONDEVELOPMENTCONSOLIDATIONECONOMIC RECOVERYPHYSICAL RECOVERYDEATH OF THE SYSTEM
TYPES OF AID
Relie aid is primarily intended to save lives andprotect livelihoods when they are at immedi-ate risk in pre-crisis or acute crisis situations. This is done by giving people access to goodsessential or their survival (such as householditems, ood, seed and tools) when they can nolonger obtain them on their own. Aid o thiskind should be combined with dialogue withparties that are in a position to enhance theprotection o the people concerned.
Livelihood supportProduction aid
is intended to spur ood pro-
duction and/or generate income, and ultim-
ately to restore sustainable livelihoods in
pre-crisis, chronic crisis and post-crisis environ-
ments. This means preserving household or
community productive assets.Production aid takes the orm o the vaccina-tion, culling and restocking o livestock herds,
the distribution of agricultural implements,
seed and ishing tackle, micro-economic initia-tives and capacity-building eorts.
Degree o Crisis
The ICRC has deined our degrees o crisisregarding the coverage o essential needs,(see above). The Economic Security Unit as-sesses needs at household level in order toobtain irst-hand local inormation.
Crisis Security Responses
Responses vary with the degree of crisis.
In pre-crisis and acute crisis situations,
the response meets essential needs. The aim is to save lives.In chronic crisis and post-crisis situations,
the response promotes economicconsolidation and/or reconstruction. The aim is to support livelihoods.
Different modes of action may be combined :
substitution : the direct provision o services
o service providers that have ailedto cover essential needs) ;support to local service providers ;
persuasion o relevant authorities to
shoulder their responsibilities ;mobilization o third parties to act, or to
persuade relevant authorities to do so.
The ollowing diagram helps to explain ICRCactivities that promote economic security.Relie aid aims to save lives or halt economicdecline (illustrated by the descending curve).Livelihood support aims to restore economicsecurity, in particular when recovery is underway (illustrated by the climbing curve). Live-lihood support consists o production aidand structural aid (see below).
V i r g i n i e L o u i s / I C R C
Essential needsare stil covered,but at risk of no longerbeing addressed.
Some essentialneeds are no longercovered.
Essential needs areinsufficiently covered,and acute crisiscould resume.
Essential needs arecovered by structurewhose sustainabilityremains fragile.ESSENTIAL NEEDS COVERED
D o m i n i c S a n s o n i / I C R C