Lecture note of Sourav Ray Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, SUST
A level is an instrument by which relative height of different points on the surface of the earth is determined.
Leveling is a process by means of which the difference in elevation of various points on the earth’s surface is calculated.
The main instruments of leveling operations are 1.
A level 2.
Types of level:
Dumpy level 2.
Wyes or Y-level 3.
Cooke’s reversible level 4.
Cushing level 5.
Zees, wild’s and watt’s modern levels
The following term should be clearly understood before proceeding further
A level surface is defined as a surface on which each point is perpendicular to the direction of gravity. The surface of still water is truly level surface.
A level line is a line lying in a level surface.
It is average elevation of the surface of the sea for all stage of tides.
The surface of the earth at mean sea-level is termed as Geoid.
It is an imaginary surface with respect to which the heights of different points on the earth surface are determined. In levelling operations a certain datum is assumed (known as assumed datum) and the relative height of different points are calculated with respect to this datum.
The elevation of a point is its vertical distance above of below the datum.
Reduced Level (R.L):
The elevation of any point with reference to the assumed datum is termed as reduced level (R.L) of that point.
A bench mark is a fixed point on the ground of known elevation.