The word Pranayam consists of two parts1. Prana2. AyamPrana means energy or vital air (Pran Vayu).Ayam means stretch, extension, regulation,prolongation & control.When the self energizing force embracesthe body with extension, expansion & controlof Pran Vayu; it is Pranayam.
Tasmin sati swas praswas yogartivich pranayama
(Yog Darshan 2/49)
Tasmin:In this,Sati:Being,Swas:Inhale,Praswas:ExhaleGati:FlowViccheda:Cutting-off Pranayama:Breath controlMaharshi Patanjali defines Pranayam as "Theregulation of the incoming and outgoing flow of breathwith retention."