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Potential Use of Agile Methods in Selected DoD Acquisitions: Requirements Development and Management

Potential Use of Agile Methods in Selected DoD Acquisitions: Requirements Development and Management

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Adoption of methodologies that generally come under the umbrella of “Agile” in the software development community includes consideration of how those adopting Agile methods interface with elements of the acquisition community who provide the requirements and other constraints that govern how the software part of a system will be developed. Several Agile methods have expectations about how requirements are handled that are different from the typical approach used in government acquisition settings. This qualitative research study from the Software Engineering Institute explores issues that practitioners in the field who are actively adopting Agile methods have identified in our interviews about their experience in defining and managing requirements.
Adoption of methodologies that generally come under the umbrella of “Agile” in the software development community includes consideration of how those adopting Agile methods interface with elements of the acquisition community who provide the requirements and other constraints that govern how the software part of a system will be developed. Several Agile methods have expectations about how requirements are handled that are different from the typical approach used in government acquisition settings. This qualitative research study from the Software Engineering Institute explores issues that practitioners in the field who are actively adopting Agile methods have identified in our interviews about their experience in defining and managing requirements.

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Published by: Software Engineering Institute Publications on Apr 30, 2014
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 Potential Use of Agile Methods in Selected DoD Acquisitions: Requirements Development and Management
Dr. Kenneth E. Nidiffer Suzanne M. Miller Dr. David Carney
April 2014 TECHNICAL NOTE
CMU/SEI-2013-TN-006
Client Technical Solutions
 
 
Copyright 2014 Carnegie Mellon University This material is based upon work funded and supported by the Department of Defense under Contract  No. FA8721-05-C-0003 with Carnegie Mellon University for the operation of the Software Engineer-ing Institute, a federally funded research and development center. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the United States Department of Defense. References herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trade mark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by Carnegie Mellon University or its Software Engineering Institute. This report was prepared for the SEI Administrative Agent AFLCMC/PZM 20 Schilling Circle, Bldg 1305, 3rd floor Hanscom AFB, MA 01731-2125  NO WARRANTY. THIS CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY AND SOFTWARE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE MATERIAL IS FURNISHED ON AN “AS-IS” BASIS. CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY MAKES NO WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, AS TO ANY MATTER INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, WARRANTY OF FITNESS FOR PURPOSE OR MERCHANTABILITY, EXCLUSIVITY, OR RESULTS OBTAINED FROM USE OF THE MATERIAL. CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY DOES NOT MAKE ANY WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WITH RESPECT TO FREEDOM FROM PATENT, TRADEMARK, OR COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT. This material has been approved for public release and unlimited distribution except as restricted be-low. Internal use:* Permission to reproduce this material and to prepare derivative works from this material for internal use is granted, provided the copyright and “No Warranty” statements are included with all reproductions and derivative works. External use:* This material may be reproduced in its entirety, without modification, and freely dis-tributed in written or electronic form without requesting formal permission. Permission is required for any other external and/or commercial use. Requests for permission should be directed to the Software Engineering Institute at  permission@sei.cmu.edu. * These restrictions do not apply to U.S. government entities. Carnegie Mellon
®
 is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office by Carnegie Mellon University. DM-0000785
 
 
 
CMU/SEI-2013-TN-006
 |
i
 
Table of Contents
Acknowledgments vii
 
Executive Summary ix
 
Abstract xiii
 
1
 
Introduction 1
 
1.1
 
Background and History 1
 
1.2
 
 Agile and the DoD 1
 
1.3
 
The Document-Centric Approach to Requirements 3
 
1.4
 
The Implementation-Driven (Agile) Approach to Requirements 3
 
1.5
 
Summary and Document Contents 4
 
2
 
The Agile View of Requirements 6
 
2.1
 
What We Mean by “Requirement” 6
 
2.2
 
The Agile Manifesto, Principles, and Life Cycle 6
 
2.3
 
Requirements Development and Management in Agile SW Development 8
 
2.3.1
 
Basics of Agile Requirements Development in Small Projects 8
 
2.3.2
 
Scaling Agile Requirements Analysis from Small Settings to Larger Contexts 11
 
3
 
Differences Between Document-Centric and Implementation-Driven Approaches with regard to Requirements Development and Management 15
 
3.1
 
Strengths and Weaknesses of each Approach 15
 
3.2
 
Problems Inherent in each Approach 16
 
3.3
 
What Kinds of DoD Programs Would Benefit from Agile and Which Would Probably Not 17
 
4
 
Potential Barriers to use of Agile Requirements Methods in DoD Acquisition 18
 
4.1
 
DoD Guidance 18
 
4.2
 
Translation of Progress Measures 19
 
4.3
 
Risk Averse Culture 20
 
4.4
 
Work Breakdown Structure 21
 
4.5
 
Effect of Requirements Change on Contracts 23
 
4.6
 
Perception That Reduced Documentation Is a Cause for Concern 24
 
4.7
 
Moving Beyond Document-Centric Requirements Definition and Management 25
 
5
 
Interview Results: Effective Application of Requirements Development and Management Approaches for DoD Programs 27
 
6
 
Summary 32
 
Appendix:
 
The DoD Acquisition Challenge 34
 
References/Bibliography 36
 

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