640 JOURNAL OF AMERICAN COLLEGE HEALTH
Krebs et al
guish between women who voluntarily consumed AOD and women who were administered a substance without their knowledge or consent. Stories about college women who were purposively drugged and then sexually assaulted (ie, cases of DFSA) have led some people to believe or fear that heinous acts such as these are commonplace during the college years.
It is therefore important to learn more about how women become incapacitated prior to being sexually assaulted, paying particular attention to the prevalence of DFSA, as this information can inform the development of sexual assault prevention programs. A study by Testa, Livingston, et al
was among the first of few investigations that have identified the means by which women became incapacitated and were subsequently raped. They surveyed a community sample of 1,014 women in the vicinity of Buffalo, New York, using a modified version of the Sexual Experiences Survey (which was validated in a follow-up study by Testa, VanZile-Tamsen, Livingston, and Koss
) that distinguished between incapacitated and drug-facilitated rapes. Results indicated that 9.8% of the women had experienced physically forcible rape (ie, forced sexual intercourse). Fewer women, 8.4%, experienced a rape when they were “incapacitated due to alcohol or drugs,” and 3.1% of the sample experienced alcohol or drug-facilitated rape, which was defined by an affirmative response to a question about experiencing sexual intercourse when “you didn’t want to because a man made you intoxicated by giving you alcohol or drugs without your knowledge or consent.” Testa and her colleagues’ research added much needed information to the scientific literature; however, the experi-ences of this community sample of women may not be simi-lar to those of undergraduate college women. For example, the average age of the women in their sample was 24 years; undergraduate women are typically younger, and as the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) has consis-tently shown, being younger places them at increased risk of sexual victimization.
Also noteworthy is the evidence from 1 campus to suggest that the risk of rape is greater among women who recently entered college (eg, freshmen) and that this risk decreases over the college tenure.
More-over, the college culture and its associated lifestyle, with many students frequenting parties and/or bars and consum-ing AOD, may place college women at greater risk of sexual assault compared with women in the general population. Given the serious consequences experienced by victims of rape (ie, oral, anal, or vaginal penetration), it is not surprising that it has received much more attention by researchers than has sexual battery (ie, sexual assault that involves no more than touching), even though some studies suggest college women are more likely to experience sexual battery than rape.
For example, the National Sexual Victimization of College Women study that surveyed 4,446 college women found that almost 9% of the women expe-rienced unwanted sexual contact within an academic year, whereas nearly 3% experienced rape.
Even though less research has focused on sexual bat-tery than rape, the little research that has been done on this topic has found that the perpetrators of this type of sexual assault also may use alcohol or drugs to incapacitate women and assault them sexually. For example, in a sample of undergraduate women from 1 university, Banyard and colleagues
found that 9% of unwanted sexual contact vic-tims reported that the perpetrator used force, whereas 8% reported that the perpetrator got them intoxicated by giving them alcohol and/or drugs. To the best of our knowledge, no previous studies have examined whether college women who experience sexual battery while incapacitated were in this state because of their voluntary use of substances or because of someone giving them an intoxicating substance without their knowledge or consent. Seldom has a study simultaneously examined the preva-lence of each of these types of sexual assault within a large sample of college women. The present study, the Campus Sexual Assault (CSA) study, analyzed results from a Web-based survey administered to a probability-based sample of 5,446 undergraduate women enrolled at 2 large public, 4-year universities. The CSA study builds on past research in an effort to further the understanding of the prevalence of different types of sexual assault experienced by college women. Notable aspects of the CSA methodology are that it examined both attempted and completed rape and sexual battery, with attention paid to whether the assault occurred through means of physical or threatened force or incapaci-tation of the victim, including AOD-enabled sexual assault and drug-facilitated sexual assault. Further, the CSA study gathered data on sexual assaults that happened before enter-ing college and those that occurred since entering college. We first present data on the different types of sexual assault experienced by the college women studied, with attention paid to the prevalence of various types of complet-ed sexual assault experienced before entering college and the prevalence of various types of completed sexual assault since entering college. In addition, to understand when most undergraduate women experience sexual assault, the prevalence data on the types of completed sexual assault experienced since entering college were stratified by year of study (eg, sophomore, junior). We discuss the implications of these results for informing college-based prevention efforts that target specific types of sexual assault.
METHODSRecruitment of the Study Sample
Undergraduate students from 2 large public, 4-year uni-versities—1 located in the southern United States and the other in the Midwest—participated in the CSA study. The Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the leading institution, a nonprofit research organization, and the IRBs at both participating universities reviewed and approved the CSA study protocol. Registrars at both universities provided demographic information on all undergraduates enrolled in the 2005 fall term. The sampling frame was limited to tradi-tional undergraduate students (ie, those between the ages of 18 and 25 who were enrolled at least three-quarters time). A