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08. Drilling Bits.pdf

08. Drilling Bits.pdf

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Table of Contents
January 1997
Confidential 
Directional Drilling 8-i
8Drilling BitsPage
List of FiguresPage
Figure 8-1 Fixed cutter bit components (PDC, TSP, & natural diamonds).............................8-1Figure 8-2 Roller Cone Bit Components..................................................................................8-2Figure 8-3 Roller cone (a) and PDC (b) bits............................................................................8-3Figure 8-4 TSP diamond (a) and natural diamond (b) bits......................................................8-3Figure 8-5 IADC dull bit grading system.................................................................................8-6Figure 8-6 Two thirds rule and how to measure gauge............................................................8-7Figure 8-7 Broken cone............................................................................................................8-8Figure 8-8 Bond failure............................................................................................................8-9Figure 8-9 Broken teeth............................................................................................................8-9Figure 8-10 Balled up bit.......................................................................................................8-10Figure 8-11 Cracked cone......................................................................................................8-10Figure 8-12 Cone dragged......................................................................................................8-11Figure 8-13 Cone interference................................................................................................8-11Figure 8-14 Cored bit.............................................................................................................8-12Figure 8-15 Chipped teeth/cutters..........................................................................................8-12Figure 8-16 Erosion................................................................................................................8-13Figure 8-17 Flat crested wear.................................................................................................8-13Figure 8-18 Heat checking.....................................................................................................8-14Figure 8-19 Junk damage.......................................................................................................8-14Figure 8-20 Lost cone.............................................................................................................8-15Figure 8-21 Lost nozzle..........................................................................................................8-15Figure 8-22 Lost teeth/cutters................................................................................................8-16Figure 8-23 Off center wear...................................................................................................8-16Figure 8-24 Pinched bit..........................................................................................................8-17Figure 8-25 Plugged nozzle....................................................................................................8-17Figure 8-26 Rounded gauge...................................................................................................8-18Figure 8-27 Shirttail damage..................................................................................................8-19Figure 8-28 Self sharpening wear..........................................................................................8-19Figure 8-29 Tracking..............................................................................................................8-19Figure 8-30 Washed out bit....................................................................................................8-20Figure 8-31 Worn teeth or cutters..........................................................................................8-20
List of TablesPage
No list of tables.
 
Drilling Operations
January 1997
Confidential 
Directional Drilling 8-1
8 Drilling Bits
About this chapter
The first thing in any drilling assembly is the bit. This chapter will help the DD gain theknowledge necessary to make intelligent recommendations regarding bit selection. Themove toward integrated steerable systems makes it imperative that the DD has someinput in the bit selection process because if the steerable BHA is to perform as expectedthe bit must not only achieve an acceptable penetration rate, but must also last for thedesired footage while allowing the DD to directionally control the hole.After the bit is run the driller and the tool pusher and the DD usually grade the dull bit.This makes it easier to evaluate the bit’s performance and is a valuable tool in making thenext bit selection. The second part of this chapter is dedicated to dull bit grading.
Objectives of this Chapter
On completing this chapter the directional driller should be able to do the followingexercise:1. Name the basic parts of a tricone, diamond, TSP, and PDC Bit.2. Explain the criteria for bit selection.3. Inspect a dull bit and fill out a dull grading form.4. Use the information from offset bit records.
8.1 Bits
In drilling operations the drill bit is the first thing to go in hole. A basic understanding of the different parts of a drill bit, general guidelines to bit selection, and specific guidelinesto bit dull grading are a major part of the directional driller’s knowledge.
Figure 8-1 Fixed cutter bit components (PDC, TSP, & natural diamonds) 
 
Drilling Operations
January 1997
Confidential 
Directional Drilling 8-2
Figure 8-2 Roller Cone Bit Components 
8.1.1 Bit Selection
The cutting action of the various types must be the first consideration when selecting abit. Each type of bit "makes" hole in a different manner.The
Roller Cone Bit
crushes, gouges and deforms the rock (Figure 8-3). The drillingefficiency is most effected by WOB. Roller Cone Bits have moving parts which mustfunction at the desired rotary speed.

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