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Workshop Session 6 Parallel Structures Key

Workshop Session 6 Parallel Structures Key

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English for Academic Studies (Workshop) Session 6: Parallel StructuresSemester 1, 2009/10 ©PolyU HKCC
Session 6: Parallel Structures (KEY)Part A: Diagnostic Test
Identify and underline the nonparallel structures in the following passage. Then,revise these sentences to eliminate errors in parallel structure in the space betweenthe lines.
How do you classify a person as beautiful? Is it someone having an attractiveappearance,dressing up in gorgeous apparel (-ing phrase),or having a slim body? Beingaffected by the advertisements of slimming treatments and products shown on televisionandin the mass media, many women now believe that having not more than 100 lbs isbeautiful, andthey always claim that they can gain back their self-confidence and others’respect after losing weight (clause – active voice). This view is fallacious. Being beautifulis not a matter of being good-looking but having a commendable personality. Do youthink your favourite superstars would still look smart andcharming (adjective)when theyare put into prison because of taking drugs orcommitting crime (-ing phrase)? Or don’tyou agree that Mother Teresa, Florence Nightingale and Mariah Carey are all lovely andbeautiful because of their kindness andtalents (noun)? If you deny the former but affirmthe latter, there should be no doubt thatbeing kind-hearted, intelligent, cheerful andenergetic (adjective)are the main qualities of a laudable personality, all of which canmake a person look more beautiful. On the other hand, being slim is only a phrase used todescribe one’s outward appearance. Slimness contributes nothing to one’s personality,and it might not even make one look pretty.
Part B: Grammatical Sentences – Review Parallel Structures
- Sentences that list things in a series using the same grammaticalform to improve sentence clarity, conciseness, and readability.
Using words in parallel form:
Put words of the same grammatical form in a series.
 Example (nouns)
 Disciplinary action will be taken if a student is found plagiarizingothers’ ideas or words.
 Example (verbs)
 I have read and chosen an article about the 2008 financial tsunamiin the last reflective writing practice.
 Example (adjectives)
A good English learner should be active, diligent and 
English for Academic Studies (Workshop) Session 6: Parallel StructuresSemester 1, 2009/10 ©PolyU HKCC
uninhibited .
 Example (adverbs)
 No bonus mark will be given to works completed sloppily,untidily and late.
Using phrases in parallel form:
Put phrases of the same grammatical form in a series.
 Example (infinitives)
Our lecturer reminded us to submit an essay outline before thedeadline and to schedule an appointment with him for essay consultation.
 Example (gerund)
Writing assignments, doing group projects, and reading coursetexts are the common tasks all college students need to do.
 Example (participles)
 Having participated actively in the class activities and asked the teacher for constant feedback, Jonathan was able to perform exceptionally well inthis challenging subject.
 Example (prepositional phrases)
To support our argument more adequately, we had better locate other sources of references from the library and on the Internet.
Using clauses in parallel form:
Put words of the same grammatical form in a series.
  Example (active voice)
Men and women speak the same language, yet theycommunicate very differently. Example (passive voice): The division of work in the College is very clear. Student enquiries are handled at the Information Kiosk; staff enquiries are dealt with inthe service counter of the General Office.
Using parallel forms with correlative conjunctions* (paired words):
Put words of thesame grammatical form in a series.
*Correlative conjunctions (paired words): 
not only… but (also); either… or, both…and, neither… nor; whether… or; not…but. Example: Both mature candidates and overseas applicants are required to write awritten test.
Part C: Concept Boosting Exercises
Exercise C1:
Identify and underline the nonparallel structures in the followingpassage. Then, revise these sentences to eliminate errors in parallel structure inthe space between the lines.
Basketball is a world-wide sport now. It is one of the most popular choices amongteenagers who are vibrant andenergetic (adjective). Although there are many basketballcourts in our community, they are always full, no matter it is in the morning, in the
English for Academic Studies (Workshop) Session 6: Parallel StructuresSemester 1, 2009/10 ©PolyU HKCC
afternoon, oron a public holiday (prepositional phrase). Not only do teenagers findplaying basketball exciting, butplaying basketball can also foster their whole-persondevelopment (clause – active). By playing basketball, teenagers can exercise, build upteamwork skills anddevelop their mental stamina (verb phrase). To begin with, playingbasketball regularly can improve their health. By means of jumping and running,especially at the age of puberty, teenagers may grow taller andstrengthen their muscles(verb phrase – active voice).Another advantage of playing basketball is that it can helpteenagers develop teamwork skills. A basketball match is a team game in which playershave to communicate with their teammates to organize a defense oran offense (nounphrase). What can be gained is not a physical product but a spirit, one which is essentialwhen working with a group of people, no matter who you are working with andwhat their personalities are (clause introduced by a WH-question word). Meanwhile, teenagersmay also develop friendship andlearn to respect others (verb phrase). Besides physicalconstitution and teamwork skills, playing basketball can help teenagers develop mentalstamina. When teenagers join a team to play a competition, they have to take the coach’sinstruction, have good discipline andfollow the rules (verb phrase).Also, in a match, theyoungster’s team may lead or lag behind. While they are losing, they need to be persistent;while they are leading,they cannot be complacent (adjective).These attitudes are notinborn; they are built up through training.
Exercise C2: Complete the following sentences with parallel items.
Working in Mainland China is a wise decision for the university fresh graduatesbecause it provides the chances for gaining extensive work experience, immersing ina Putonghua learning environment, and _________________________________________________________________________________________________________.
 Answers may vary, yet the third point should be presented in the form of an “-ing phrase”.
2. Putonghua should be made the medium of instruction of all Chinese-related subjectsas it increases students’ exposure to Putonghua, cultivates a sense of belongings, and____________________________________________________________________.
 Answers may vary, yet the third point should be introduced in the form of a “verb phrase”.

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