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Digital images are widely used media over the Internet for different purpose. Therefore, security becomes important in the transmission. This paper presents spatial domain multilevel image encryption algorithm based on Arnold cat's map. The algorithm divides the image into different size overlapping blocks along the levels of encryption. The block at level 1 begins at the center of the image and this block is iteratively enlarged in the next levels. In each level of the proposed algorithm, Arnold cat's map is implemented in each level on the block's pixels. Also, zigzag scan is applied on the whole image to further reducing the correlation between adjacent pixels. In order to achieve the diffusion, the pixel values are xored with different xor values begin at a value, which is generated randomly, beside control parameters and iteration number of Arnold cat's map, by using mid-product algorithm with the secret key as an initial seed. The results of experiments indicated that the proposed algorithm is highly decorrelated the adjacent pixels and it resists the statistical attacks. The values of ciphered image entropy are close to the ideal value. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm is very sensitive to key. It was concluded that the use of zigzag scan beside Arnold cat's map in spatial domain was very efficient to hide the statistical characteristics of the image.

Digital images are widely used media over the Internet for different purpose. Therefore, security becomes important in the transmission. This paper presents spatial domain multilevel image encryption algorithm based on Arnold cat's map. The algorithm divides the image into different size overlapping blocks along the levels of encryption. The block at level 1 begins at the center of the image and this block is iteratively enlarged in the next levels. In each level of the proposed algorithm, Arnold cat's map is implemented in each level on the block's pixels. Also, zigzag scan is applied on the whole image to further reducing the correlation between adjacent pixels. In order to achieve the diffusion, the pixel values are xored with different xor values begin at a value, which is generated randomly, beside control parameters and iteration number of Arnold cat's map, by using mid-product algorithm with the secret key as an initial seed. The results of experiments indicated that the proposed algorithm is highly decorrelated the adjacent pixels and it resists the statistical attacks. The values of ciphered image entropy are close to the ideal value. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm is very sensitive to key. It was concluded that the use of zigzag scan beside Arnold cat's map in spatial domain was very efficient to hide the statistical characteristics of the image.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 12, No. 3, March 2014

Chaotic Scheme for Image Encryption Based on Arnold Cat's Map

Ansam Osama Abdul-Majeed

Department of Software Engineering College of Computer Science and Mathematics / University of Mosul Mosul, Iraq

Abstract

—

Digital images are widely used

media over the Internet for different purpose. Therefore, security becomes important in the transmission. This paper presents spatial domain multilevel image encryption algorithm based on Arnold cat's map. The algorithm divides the image into different size overlapping blocks along the levels of encryption. The block at level 1 begins at the center of the image and this block is iteratively enlarged in the next levels. In each level of the proposed algorithm, Arnold cat's map is implemented in each level on the block's pixels. Also, zigzag scan is applied on the whole image to further reducing the correlation between adjacent pixels. In order to achieve the diffusion, the pixel values are xored with different xor values begin at a value, which is generated randomly, beside control parameters and iteration number of Arnold cat's map, by using mid-product algorithm with the secret key as an initial seed. The results of experiments indicated that the proposed algorithm is highly decorrelated the adjacent pixels and it resists the statistical attacks. The values of ciphered image entropy are close to the ideal value. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm is very sensitive to key.

It was concluded that the use of zigzag scan beside Arnold cat's map in spatial

domain was very efficient to hide the statistical characteristics of the image.

Keywords-Image encryption; Arnold cat's map; Zigzag scan; mid-product.

I.

I

NTRODUCTION

Today, huge amount of different information has been transmitted over Internet.

Thus, information security become very important issue in order to preserve the transmission of private and critical information[1]. Cryptography is the process of transforming original media from significative to ambiguous form to protect it from unauthorized persons. In recent years, the chaotic encryption played an important role in image encryption because one of the most important properties of chaotic is the sensitiveness to the initial condition and control parameters that makes it resists the statistical attacks [2]. Compared with the traditional algorithms; the chaotic algorithms are susceptible to the control parameters, while traditional algorithms are susceptible to key. In addition, diffusion and confusion are performed in traditional encryption by rounds, while they are performed by iteration in chaotic encryption [3]. Anyway, the higher security image encryption algorithm needs to fulfill the concepts of confusion and diffusion. Confusion and diffusion mean shuffling the pixels, as well as modifying the values to hide the statistical properties of the image [4]. In the past few years, many image encryption schemes using Arnold cat's map has been proposed. G. Chen, Y. Mao, and C. K. Chui, (2004), extend the 2D Arnold cat's map to 3D map. In between the adjacent round, the algorithm applied "xor plus mod" operation on each pixel to achieve the diffusion.The key is schemed by using Chen's chaotic system [3]. M. Ahmad, O. Farooq, and J. Blackledge, (2010), proposed a novel scheme that divided the image into 8

×

8 macroblock, computed the DCT coefficients for that block, and partitioned the block into non-overlapping blocks of coefficients. At each level, the block size reduced into the half, iteratively. The scheme shuffled the coefficients by using Arnold cat's map, and the Logistic map used to produce the control parameters and to mask the value of image pixels [1]. S. Keshari, and S. G. Modani, (2011), suggested method uses chaotic map to convert image pixels to corresponding map variable that used as initial condition to iterate other map. The algorithm then scrambled the position of pixel using Arnold cat's map [2]. S. Kashyap, and K. Karthik, (2011), divided the image into blocks, applied DCT, and then applied Arnold transform individually on each block using control parameters and number of iterations as a key. The algorithm generated a hash function by using the mean and variance of the blocks [4]. Z. Tang, and X. Zhang, (2011), proposed an image encryption algorithm by dividing the image into number of overlapping squared blocks. For each block, the algorithm generated a pseudo-random number as iterative number of Arnold transform for that block. After that, the Arnold cat's map applied in random order on each of these blocks [5]. This paper was aimed to propose multilevel image encryption algorithm in the spatial domain based on chaotic Arnold cat's map which is implemented on the pixels of overlapping blocks. In the proposed algorithm, the first block begins at the center of the image, and it is

enlarged iteratively in hierarchical manner along the levels of encryption. The proposed algorithm used zigzag scan beside the Arnold cat's map to further reducing the correlation between adjacent pixels. In order to fulfill the concept of diffusion, the pixels values are xored with incremented values, depending on another random generated xor value. The control parameters and the iteration number of Arnold cat's map as well as the xor

26http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 12, No. 3, March 2014

value are randomly generated by using mid-product algorithm with 20 digits secret key number. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: section II presents a brief overview of used methods. Section III discuses the popular measures used to evaluate the encryption quality. The proposed algorithm and its stages are presented in Section IV. Section V evaluates the experimental results and discussed them. Finally the conclusion drawn in section VI. II.

O

VERVIEW OF

M

ETHODS THAT

U

SED

The methods that used in this proposed algorithm were the following:

A.

Arnold Cat's Map Transform

One of the chaotic maps, which is appropriate for squared images encryption, is the Arnold cat's map [5]. The mathematical representation for Arnold Transform is as follows: where x

n

, and y

n

are the coordinate of pixel in image which its dimension is N

×

N, while p and q are two positive integer numbers act as control parameters [4]. From (1), it is clear that the Arnold cat's map shuffles the pixel's position by shearing the image in both directions, and then flexing it by using modulo operation. Furthermore, applying Arnold cat's map K times on the image will cause restoring the image to its origin, where K depends on p, q and N [3]. The inverse Arnold cat's map can be represented as follows:[4]. Because of the periodicity property of Arnold cat's map, it is important to add another processing to the algorithm in order to increase its security [2].

B.

Zigzag Scan

Zigzag scan is a famous scanning algorithm which is used to turn an image, (2D matrix), into 1D vector in such manner that decreases the correlation between adjacent pixels [6]. Fig.1 illustrates the scanning approach of zigzag scan.

C.

Mid- Product Random Number Generation

This method starts by multiplying two numbers (initial seeds) x and y of n digits to generate another number. The middle digits of the resulting number represent the random number z. This procedure is repeated to generate the rest random numbers [7]. The method uses y instead of x, and z instead of y. III.

MEASUREMENTS OF ENCRYPTION QUALITY

The most popular measures that use to ensure the security and efficiency of the image encryption algorithm are

as follows:

A.

Histogram Analysis

In order to make the encryption algorithm resists the statistical attacks, the histogram of the cipher image must be uniform, so the opponent could not be able to obtain any information about the grayscale distribution [1].

B.

Corrolation Coefficients

The correlation between two variables is how these variables related to each other. If the correlation coefficient equals to 1, this means that the two variables are highly correlated. On the other hand, if correlation coefficient closes to 0, this means that the two variable are decorrelated. Furthermore, if the correlation coefficient equals to -1, this means that one of these variables is the negative of the other [8]. Because the correlation among the adjacent pixels in the plain image is strong, the good encryption algorithm must reduces this correlation as much as possible in the cipher image. The correlation coefficient between adjacent pixels x and y can be computed according to (3) [1]:

C.

Entropy

The randomness of variables is measured by entropy, which is computed by (4): The entropy of a variable of 28 symbols v = {m

0

, m

1

,… m

255

} with equal probability, p(mi), equals 8, which is the perfect value. The entropy of cipher image must be close to the perfect value as much as possible[1].

D.

Maximum Deviation

Maximum Deviation measures how the cipher image deviated from the plain image. It can be founded as follows:

9 10

11 12 13 14

15 16 1 2

3 4 5 6

7 8 9

10

11 12 13 14

15 16 1 2

3 4 5 6

7 8 2D Matrix

1D Vector

)2(mod
11

11

N y xq p pq y x

nnnn

Figure 1. Zigzag scan

)3()()(
)()(
),(

11221

N i N iii N iii

ymean y xmean x
ymean y xmean x
y xcorr

)4()(log)()(

22550

iii

m pm pv E

)1(mod
11

11

N y x pqq p y x

nnnn

27http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 12, No. 3, March 2014

20 digits secret key Subkeys Generation (mid-product) Plain image Zigzag scan Getting block Arnold cat's map transform Xoring Intermediate cipher image Cipher image Increment p q iter xor

Find the number of every grayscale pixel value (0-255) for both plain and cipher image, which is p_count and c_count, respectively.

Find absolute difference between p_count and c_count.

Find the sum of deviation D, where D is Where

h

i

is

i

th

absolute difference. A good encryption algorithm must maximize the Deviation as much as possible[8].

E.

Irregular Deviation

Irregular deviation measures the irregularity of the changes in the cipher image that is caused by the encryption algorithm. The irregular deviation can be founded as following:

Find the absolute difference, D, between plain and cipher images.

Find the histogram H of D, where

h

i

is the number of value of absolute difference Di.

Find the average value, DC, of pixels that deviated at every deviation value.

Find the sum of the absolute difference values between DC and H. the result of summation is the irregular deviation. The good encryption algorithm try to minimize the irregular deviation value as much as possible [8]. IV.

T

HE PROPOSED ALGORITHM

This paper propose multilevel image encryption algorithm in the spatial domain consisted from the following stages (see Fig. 2):

A.

Zigzag Scanning Stage

In order to make further reducing in the correlation between the adjacent pixels, zigzag scan applied to the original plain image and to each

intermediate cipher image resulted from each level. The zigzag scan stage converted the image to one-dimensional vector which is converted back to two-dimensional matrix before enter to the next stage.(see Fig. 3).

B.

Blocking Stage

The proposed algorithm divided the image, along the levels of encryption, into overlapping squared blocks at the center of the zigzagged image. In the first level, the block begins at (row/2, column/2) position, and ends at (row/2+1, column/2+1). At each level of encryption, the size of the block increased by one row in both top and bottom, and one column in both right and left of the block in the previous level. At the last level, the block size occupied the whole image size. The number of blocks depended on the number of levels which depended on the size of image. For instance, 256

×

256 image was encrypted by

128 levels and 128 squared blocks. Fig. 4 illustrates the manner in which the proposed algorithm got a block at each level.

Original 9 10

11 12 13 14

15 16 1 2

3 4 5 6

7 8

10 13

14 11 8 12

15 16 1 2

5 9 6 3

4 7 Zigzagged image9

10

11 12 13 14

15 16 1 2

3 4 5 6

7 8 1D Vector

)5(,
2

25412550

ii

hhh D

)6(,
2551

2550

ii

h DC

Figure 2. Block diagram of the proposed algorithm Figure 3. Zigzag scanning stage of the proposed algorithm

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