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Rig Hydraulics

# Rig Hydraulics

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Published by: mihir1810 on Nov 06, 2009
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04/19/2013

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RIG HYDRAULICSThis chapter covers the following items:

Pressure losses

Surface connection losses

Pressure drop across the bit

Optimization of bit hydraulics

Surface pressure drop

Hydraulic criteria

Comparison of BHHP and IF

Optimum flow rate

Field methods for optimizing bit hydraulics

A practical check of the efficiency of bit hydraulic program
Pressure Losses

The circulation system consists of: pump, surface connections(stand pipe, hose, swivel and Kelly), drill pipe, drill collars, bit,annulus between drill collars and hole, annulus between drillpipe and hole, mud return lines, and mud tanks.

Friction of fluid through these parts causes pressure losses

The calculation of this pressure losses depend on four parts

Surface connection losses

Pipe losses

Annular losses

Losses across the bit

Losses depend on the type of fluid used and the type of flow
Surface Connection Losses

Losses caused through surface connections

Depend on the geometry and dimensions of surface connections

These dimensions can vary with time

Evaluated by:P
1
= E
ρ
0.8
Q
1.8
(PV)
0.2
psi or barP
1
=

pressure loss, psi or bar
ρ

= Density, ppg or kg/lQ = flow rate, gpm, l/min

PV = plastic viscosity, cpE = constant depends type of surface connectionsValue of EValue of ESurface EquipmentTypeImperial Units Metric Units1 2.5x10
-4
8.8x10
-6
2 9.6x10
-5
3.3x10
-6
3 5.3x10
-5
1.8x10
-6
4 4.2x10
-5
1.4x10
-6
Four types of surface equipmentStand Pipe Rotary Hose Swivel KellySurfaceEquipmentTypeLength(Ft)ID(in)Length(Ft)ID(in)Length(Ft)ID(in)Length(Ft)ID(in)1 40 3.0 40 2.0 4 2.0 40 2.252 40 3.5 55 2.5 5 2.5 40 3.253 45 4.0 55 3.0 5 3.5 40 3.254 45 4.0 55 3.0 6 3.0 40 4.00
Pipe and Annular Losses

Pipe losses takes place inside drill pipe and drill collars

They are designated as P
2
and P
3

Annular losses takes place around drill collars and drill pipe

They are designated as P
4
and P
5

The magnitude of these pressures depends on

Dimension of pipe

Mud rheological properties, weight, plastic viscosity, andyield point

Type of flow, laminar or turbulent

Several models exist to measure pressure losses

Only two are models will be used: the Bingham plastic and thepower lawThe following are the equations used for calculations
Bingham Plastic Model

Pipe Flow

Determine average velocity

24.5 /min2
QVa f D
=

Determine critical velocity

229797()8.2 /min
PV PV D YPVc f D
ρ  ρ
+ +=

If Va > Vc, flow is turbulent; use

50.81.80.28.9110()4.8
x Q PV LP psi D
ρ
=

If Va < Vc, flow is laminar; use

()5300
PV Va LP YP psi D D
= +
Annular flow

Determine average velocity

22
24.5 /min
h p
OD
QVa f D
=

Determine critical velocity

)
229797()6.2 /min(
eh p
OD
PV PV D YPVc f D
ρ  ρ
+ +=

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