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Non Parametric Test

# Non Parametric Test

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11/27/2012

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Chapter 6: Analysing the DataPart III: Common StatisticalTests
Nonparametric tests
Occasionally, the assumptions of the t-tests are seriously violated. Inparticular, if the type of data you have is ordinal in nature and not at leastinterval. On such occasions an alternative approach is to use nonparametrictests. We are not going to place much emphasis on them in this unit as theyare only occasionally used. But you should be aware of them and have somefamiliarity with them.Nonparametric tests are also referred to as
distribution-free
tests. Thesetests have the obvious advantage of not requiring the assumption of normality or the assumption of homogeneity of variance. They comparemedians rather than means and, as a result, if the data have one or twooutliers, their influence is negated.Parametric tests are preferred because, in general, for the same number of observations, they are more likely to lead to the rejection of a false hullhypothesis. That is, they have more power. This greater power stems fromthe fact that if the data have been collected at an interval or ratio level,information is lost in the conversion to ranked data (i.e., merely ordering thedata from the lowest to the highest value).The following table gives the non-parametric analogue for the paired samplet-test and the independent samples t-test. There is no obvious comparisonfor the one sample t-test. Chi-square is a one-sample test and there arealternatives to chi-square but we will not consider them further. Chi-squareis already a non-parametric test. Pearson's correlation also has non-parametric alternative (Spearman's correlation) but we will not deal with itfurther either.There are a wide range of alternatives for the two group t-tests, the oneslisted are the most commonly use ones and are the defaults in SPSS.Generally, running nonparametric procedures is very similar to runningparametric procedures, because the same design principle is being assessedin each case. So, the process of identifying variables, selecting options, and

running the procedure are very similar. The final p-value is what determinessignificance or not in the same way as the parametric tests. SPSS gives theoption of two or three analogues for each type of parametric test, but youneed to know only the ones cited in the table. Same practice with these testsis given in Assignment II.
Parametric test Non-parametric analogue
One-sample t-testNothing quite comparablePaired sample t-testWilcoxon T TestIndependent samples t-testMann-Whitney U TestPearson's correlationSpearman's correlation
Howell describes several measures which assess the degree of relationshipbetween the two variables in chi-square. This material is worth reading butfor this unit we will not be discussing these at all. Howell also describes acorrection for continuity that is sometimes used and the use of likelihoodratios. Again we will not be dealing with these issues. However, you shouldread Howell's discussion of assumptions.Ray does not appear to discuss chi-square or contingency tables.
Research Methods and StatisticsPESS202Lecture and Commentary Notes
These notes have a long history. Most of them were originallwritten for UNE by Andrew F. Hayes, Ph.D. in 1997. They wereupdated in Jan. 1998 by Travis L. Gee, Ph.D. and again by Ian R.Price, Ph.D. in late 1998. Many of them can also be traced back

to Ray Cooksey and Adam Patrech from 1993 to 1997. So all areacknowledged as making a contribution.
These commentary notes are designed to form the backbone of the material to be learnt in this unit. You should read andunderstand these notes first and foremost. The information youneed to complete your assignments and study for your exam isessentially to be found in here. You should then try to get abroader, and also more detailed, understanding of the topics andconcepts by consulting your textbooks. In those texts you willalso find more worked examples. During internal practicalsessions external residential schools you will get practice atcarrying out the analyses that are discussed in these notes andare required for the assignments.Associated with these materials is a disk that contains a numberof programs to assist your understanding. The WebStat web siteis also intended to do this. So, the plan is for you to develop yourunderstanding of research methods and statistics using a many-pronged attack. Some ways will suit some people more thanothers but if you faithfully try them all, you should find somethingthat causes the penny to drop or the light to come on. If so, youshould then start to appreciate the exciting and rewarding natureof research.
Nonparametric statistical tests
Nonparametric
statistical tests are used instead of the
parametric
tests we have considered thus far (e.g.
-test;
-test),when:
The data are
nominal
or
ordinal
(rather than
interval
or
ratio
).
The data are
not normally distributed
, or
have heterogeneous variance
(despite being interval or ratio).