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Sayana on Golden Embryo - Rohana Seneviratne

Sayana on Golden Embryo - Rohana Seneviratne

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Published by Rohana Seneviratne
One of the pivotal questions or the cruxes in the vedic philosophy is of cosmology or in other words, of the onset of the universe (the world at least). The present paper casts a critical light on the problem involving the enigmatic hymn in the Rgveda called Hiranyagarbha (lit: Golden Embryo) heavily focusing on Sayana's commentary thereon and tallying his explication with later scholars' where necessary.
The original paper is published in Sinhala.
One of the pivotal questions or the cruxes in the vedic philosophy is of cosmology or in other words, of the onset of the universe (the world at least). The present paper casts a critical light on the problem involving the enigmatic hymn in the Rgveda called Hiranyagarbha (lit: Golden Embryo) heavily focusing on Sayana's commentary thereon and tallying his explication with later scholars' where necessary.
The original paper is published in Sinhala.

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Published by: Rohana Seneviratne on Mar 05, 2008
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03/23/2014

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R.afõoixys;d.; ysrKH.¾N iQla;h ms<sn|R.afõoixys;d.; ysrKH.¾N iQla;h ms<sn|R.afõoixys;d.; ysrKH.¾N iQla;h ms<sn|R.afõoixys;d.; ysrKH.¾N iQla;h ms<sn|úpdrd;aul wOHhkhla úpdrd;aul wOHhkhla úpdrd;aul wOHhkhla úpdrd;aul wOHhkhla 
frdayK fifkúr;akfrdayK fifkúr;akfrdayK fifkúr;akfrdayK fifkúr;ak
iïNdjH NdId wOHhkdxYhfma rdfoKsh úYajúoHd,h
 
R.afõo ixys;dfõ wka;¾.; iQla; w;r wd.ñl iy od¾Yksl iQla; jYfhka kïlrkq ,eìh yels moHixys;d rdYshls' fun÷ iQla;j, wka;¾.;h uQ,sl m%YdLd i;rlgfnod oelaùug úh;a yq reÑ fj;s' flfia o h;a"1' foajúoHdj ^
Theology
& ms<sn| f;dr;=refuys o w;=re fn§ï lsysmhls' nyqfoajjdoh
(Polytheism)
" ta flda;a;rjdoh
(Henotheism)
" talfoajjdoh
(Monotheism)
iy woaffj;jdoh
(Monism)
wd§ jYfhks'2' úYajh iïnkaO úoHdj
(Cosmology)
ms<sn| f;dr;=re3' wdpdrúoHdj
(Ethics)
ms<sn| f;dr;=re4' urKh iy u;= Wm; iïnka O úoHdj
(Eschatology)
ms<sn| f;dr;=re jYfhks'
1
 fuhska úYajh iy tys Wm; ms<sn| .eg¨ iuqodh
2
R.a fõoh ;=<" úfYaIfhka u tysmYapd;a ld,Sk uKav,hkays §" kd kd fjiska mek ke.SffjÈl wd¾hhdf.a meKir ukimqnqÿjd Æ wdldrh wOHhkfha § y÷kd .; yelsh' R.afõofha oi jk uKa v,fha 121 iy129 n÷ iQla; úfYaIfhka u fulS úIh yd ine£ isák idr.¾N moHud,d jYfhka y÷kajd§u uekú' úYajiïNj iQla;h jYfhka o we;euqka úiska kï flfrk 121 jk iQla;h bksÿiqúfYaI jeo.;alula orhs'
X.121
 
iQla;h zysrKH.¾N iQla;hZ kñka m%lg h' tys l¾;D;ajh o mjrkq ,enwe;af;a ysrKH.¾N fj; ue hs' fufia jka kg fya;=j kï tys ienE l¾;Djrhd w{d; ùu h hs we;eï úpdrlfhda l,a mkd lr;s'
3
tfia u fï lreK u fya;= lr f.k fuu iQla;h b;dmerKshq.hlg wh;a jkakg we;e hs o i,lkakg Tjqyqfm<fU;s' jdfpdaoa.; ish¨ u iD.affjÈl iQla; f,aLk.; fkd flreKqnj;a" ld,hla ;siafia RÉ ixys;djm%;sixfYdaOk" m%;sksfõYk" nysIAlrK wd§ ixia lrK l%  shdj,shlg hg;a jQnj;a óg m%dudKsl idlaIH f,i olajkq ,efí' f,aLk.; flfrk iuh jk úg fuu iQla ;fha l¾;D;ajh wm%lg j mj;skakg we;' tfyhska iQla;h tys wka;¾.; j¾Kkdmd;% jQysrKH.¾Nf.a l¾;D;ajhg mejÍula isÿ flßKs'
4
 
X.121
 
iQla;fha rphs;D ysrKH.¾N jQfha ta wkqj he hs úpdrlfhda jeäÿrg;a meyeÈ,s lr;s' R.afõofha yuq jk úYajl¾u foaj;djdj¾Kkd flfrk iQla; foll l¾;D;ajh úYajl¾ug u mjrkq ,en ;sîu o fuu ks.ukhidOdrKSlrKh lsÍu i|yd bÈßm;a l< yels ;j;a idlaIshla fjhs'zysrKH.¾NZ hk moh jHdLHd lr ne,Su m%:ufhka u wdjYHl h' tys mo.;d¾:hms<sn| ukd jegySula ,nd fkd f.k ta iïnka Ofhka .eUqre wOHhk lsÍu iM, fkd úh
1
 
dh
 
¡¢£ 
an, S (1923) – 
 Indian Philosophy ; The Hymns of the
¤ 
 gveda, Philosophical Tendencies
– NewYork , The Macmillan company – p. 91
2
 
úYafjd;am;a ;sh flfia isÿ ù o hkak m%d.ald,Sk úu¾YkYS,S ukqIHhdg ks;r úIh jQjla nj c.;a o¾Ykb;syifhka o m%;S; hs' kso¾Ykhla jYfhka .%Sl o¾Ykh i,lf;d;a ish,a , c,fhka iïNjh ù he hs lSf;a,Sia o" ish,a,g u m%Njia:dkh jQfha jd;h he hs úYajdi l< wekelaisókia o i|yka l< yels h' w.a.[a[iQ;%fha § o nqÿyq úYaj iïNjh flfia isÿ ù oe hs wdf,da pkd iuyrla oelajQy'
3
' the poem is assigned to Hira
£ 
yagarbha as the poet. The subject matter is also the same Hira
£ 
yagarbha. The poem must be by someone and since the poet was not known it was assigned to Hira
£ 
yagarbha, the god, who isdealt with in the poem. For this reason, I assign this poem too to a very ancient period in the Vedic age. I am notruling out the possibility of a later poet, concealing his own name to pass it on to a god as the poet, so that itmight acquire some sort of sanctity...'Kunhan Raja, C. (1963) – 
 Poets Philosophers of the
¤ 
 gveda (Vedic and Prevedic)
– Madras, Ganesh and Co.(Madras) Private Limited – p. 239
4
' all poems were not included within the
¥ 
gvdic collection. There was a process of shifting and filtering. Thefact that this has found its way to the collection shows that it was of an ancient period, with its author unknownat that time...' loc.cit.
 
2
yels neúks' ysrKH.¾N hkq iudi kduhla nj meyeÈ,s h' fuu iudi kduh ;kkzysrKHZ iy z.¾NZ hk mooAjh úNd. lrkq ,efí'R.afõoh ;=< zysrKH.¾NZ hk iudi kduh yuqjk tl u ia:dkh m%ia ;=;
X.121
 
iQla;fha m%:u moHh hs' zysrKHZ hk moh úNla;Skays jr ke.=Kq rEm iy iudihkayswjhjhla jYfhka fhÿKq ia:dk fndfyduhla u R.afõo ixys;dfõ mefkhs' kso¾YkjYfhka ola jf;d;a tn÷ mo lsysmhla fufia h' zysrKHðyaj" ysrKHmdKs" ysrKHmsKav"ysrKHfmYia" ysrKHm%v." ysrKHr:" ysrKHrEm" ysrKHYDÙ." ysrKHia;+m" ysrKHyia;"ysrKHdlaI" ysrKHoka;" ysrKHj;a" ysrKHfh fldfY" ysrKHhS" ysrKHj¾;skS" ysrKHjdYS"ysrKHYsm%d#'''Z
1
zysrKHZ hk moh jHdlrKdkql+, j ú.%y lrf;d;a th zysrK
+
hZ hkqfjka mofha m%:u iajrh jDoaê ùulska f;dr j ;ekqKq ;oaê; kduhla nj fmfka ' zysrKZ" zysßZhkq ziqj¾K$iaj¾KZ hk jpkfha wre;g m¾hdh mo f,i i,lkq ,efí' R.a fõofha  
II
'2'5moHfha mefkk" foúhl=f.a iaj¾Kuh m%  %djrKh j¾Kkd lrk zysßYsfm%d jDOidkdiqc¾N=r;aZ hk jdlHdxYh fï i|yd ukd kso¾Ykhls'wfjia;dfõ mefkk mqrdK m¾ishdkq NdIdfjka z
Zarenya
Z hkqfjka o" yskaÿia :dkSNdIdfõ z
Zari
Z f,i o fhfok
2
zysrKHZ hk mohg R.a fõo m%lrKh ;=< w¾: lsysmhla umj;akd nj m%lg h'
3
bksÿ wre;a i;rla fjfiiska ie,lsh hq;= h' 1' ia j¾Kuh fyda jákd f,dayhlska ;ekqKq hk w¾:h^Èrdm;a fkd jk lsishï øjHhla fkdfyd;a uqo,a hk wre; o óg wkqnoaO hs'&2' zljäZ fyj;a zlm¾oZ
(cowry)
hk w¾:h - fï jkdys uqo,a tallhla jYfhka ljä Ndú; jQ iufha zysrKHZ hkakg lejqKq w¾:hls'3' mqreI Y=l%dKq hk w¾:hfuh fuu mohg fokq ,nk b;d jeo.;a w¾:hls' foa YSh YdíÈlhka úiska jHjydr lrk ,o w¾:hla jYfhka fuh olajkq ,en ;sîu o úfYaIfhka ie,lshhq;a;ls' moj, m%n, u wre; kï ffkrela;s.; w¾:h fkd j NdIl iudchlidudðlhka w;r Ndú; ùfuka tajdg wdrEV jk w¾:h jk fyhsks'4' zw.a ks foúhdf.a §ma;su;a Èj ^ðyaj& if;ka tllaZ hk w¾:h^c,h ;=< w.a ksf.a iïNjh iy ysrKH.¾Nf.a Wm; w;r in|;dj ;yjqrelrkakg m%udK jk idlaIshla fuu.ska ,efí'&ysrKH hkakg ;j;a úfYaI w¾:hla we;s nj w:¾jfõofha úis jk uKa v,hg wh;a 132 iQla;fha 13-14 hk moH idhkdpd¾hhka bÈßm;a lrk NdIHfhka meyeÈ,s fjhs' tkïzneg¿Z
(sheep)
hkak he hs úpdrlhka lsh;;a 
4
zysrKHZ hkak zTgqZ Yíohg ^WIag%&wmrkduhla jYfhka .kafka kï jvd;a ;d¾lsl h' ukao h;a idhk z;S%KHqIa g%iH kdudks"ysrKH bf;Hfl wn%ù;aZ hkqfjka iajlSh NdIHfhys olajk neúks' flfia j;=ÿ neg¿jka fkdfyd;a Tgqjka Okh f,i i,lk ,o nj zysrKHj;# Okj;#Z hk w:¾jfõo mdGfhka m%lg h' fï wre; o zysrKHZ jkdys uQ,Huh jYfhka fyda iudc iïu; jYfhka jákdlula mej;s lsisjla y÷kajkqjia Ndú; mohlshk woyi fmdaIKh lrhs'
1
 
ysrKH hk moh Ndú; jQia:dk lsysmhla kso¾Yk f,i olajkq ,efí' fuu ish¨ kso¾Ykhkays § zysrKHZ hk mofha w¾:h ziaj¾KuhZ hkak nj uekúka m%lg hs' fuu issh¨ kso¾Yk R.afõofhks'zysrKHmdKsuQ;fhz 01'22'05 zysrKHks¾ks.fhd wiHZ 05'62'07zysrKHmdKs# iú;d úp¾IKSZ 01'35'09 zysrKHhS jd rNsÍIdZ 08'05'29zysrKHmdKs# iú;d iqðyajZ 03'54'11 zysrKHfhk mqreN+ rf:fkuxZ 04'44'04zysrKHhS wrKS hxZ 10'184'03 zysrfKHNs# múNs#Z 01'64'11zysrKHfhk rf:kZ 08'05'35 zysrKHrEm# i ysrKHZ 02'35'10zysrKHoka;x Y=Ñj¾KxZ 05'02'03 zysrKHrEmuqIfidZ 05'62'08zysrKHYDÙf.d fhd wiHZ 01'163'09
2
Suriyakanta (ed.) (1981) – 
 A Practical Vedic Dictionary
– Delhi, Oxford University Press – p. 745
3
Monier Williams, M. (ed.) (1899) – 
 A Sanskrit English dictionary
– Oxford, Oxford University Press – p. 1299
 Hira
 
 ya
 – Probably connected with 'hari, harit, hiri'1. Uncoined gold or other precious metal, 2. (later) Coined gold, money, 3. A cowry, 4. Any vessel or ornamentmade of gold, 5. Semen Virile, 6. Substance, imperishable matter, 7. One of the seven tongues of fire (Agni)
4
Swami Satya Prakash (tr.) -
¤ 
 gveda Sa
¡ 
hit 
¢ 
– Vol. xiii
 
3
zysrKH.¾NZ kï iudi kdufha fojk wjhjh jQ z.¾NZ hk moh z
.DNa Z Od;=fjka ksIamkak lDoka; kduhla nj meyeÈ,s h' z
.DNaZ jkdys zfkd jeo.;a oE .s, oeófïZw¾:fhka m%Yxid mQ¾jl j fhfo;e hs ksrela;ldr hdialdpd¾hfhda ola j;s'z.¾fNd .DfN¾.DKd;H¾f:" .sr;Hk¾:dka b;sjdZ ^ksrela; -
X
.23
&z.¾NZ hka k m%p,s;d¾:fhka ia;%shlf.a îchkg mqreI îc tlaùfuka yg .kakd .en nj fjfiiska olajkq ,en ;sfí'zhod ysia;%S .=Kdka .DyaKd;s .=KdYa pdiHd .DyHkaf;Z: .¾fNd Nj;sZ ^ksrela ; -
X
.23
&zysrKH.¾NZ hk moh uq, § l¾uOdr iudihla j mej;s kuqÿ miq j th nyqù%ysiudihlg mßj¾;kh jQ nj ^ysrKH.¾fNd ysrKHufhd .¾N#" ysrKHufhd .¾fNdZiH b;sjd& R.afõofha NdIHhkaf.ka o fmrZmr foÈ. úpdrlhkaf.a jHdLHd u.ska o m%lg fõ'z.¾NZ hkakfys uQ,sl w¾:h fkdfyd;a R.afõofha § mefkk w¾:h kï .¾NdIh
(womb)
"N%EKh
(embryo)
" ÔjOd;=j
(seed)
fyda orejd
(child)
hkak úkd wKa vh
(egg)
hkak fkdjk nj i,lk
W.D. O' Flaherti
kï mçjrhd z.¾NZ hkakg zwKavhZ hk w¾:h miqjwdfrdams; jQjla nj wjOdrKh lrhs'
1
 R.a fõo NdIHldr idhkdpd¾hfhdA zysrKH.¾NZ hk iudih fufia ú.%y lr;s'zysrKH.¾N ysrKHuhiHdKaviH .¾NN+;#''' hoajd ysrKHufhdZKafvd.¾NjoHfiHdofr j¾;f; fidZfi! iQ;%d;aud ysrKH.¾N b;HqpHf;'''Z
O' Flaherti
zysrKH.¾NZ hkak mßj¾;kh lrkafka fufia h'z
He, in whose belly the golden seed or egg exists like an embryo'
úpdrlhka w;ßka ysrKH.¾N ixl,amfha oaúúO rEmdldrh b;d uekúka ú.%y lrkú,dih meyeÈ,s ks.ukhka i|yd fnfyúka WmldÍ fõ'
2
ixlaIsma; j mßj¾;kh fldgolajf;d;a ta fufia h'zc,h kue;s .en ;=< w.akslKsld kue;s Ôjîc ;ekam;a j we;' fyj;a w.a kshÔjîc fudaplhd h' tfia u c,h .eínr jka fka w.a ksh kue;s N%EKh ksid h' fyj;a  w.aksh c,fha mq;%hd h'''ZzmYapd;a ;k ffjÈl .%ka :hkays ms;D-mq;% iduHh úfYaIfhka biau;= ù fmfkk w;r fuu ysrKH.¾Nh ia;%Säïn iys; .¾NdIh fyda Y=l%Od;= iys; jDIK f,i oaúúO j y÷kd.efkhs' fï ksid ia;%S-mqreI ,sx.oajhg u wh;a W;am;a;s m%;srEm ika;;shla 
(continuum of androgynous birth images)
jYfhka w¾: mrïmrdjla mj;S' mqreIîc fyj;a Y=l%Od;=".¾NdIh" N%EKh" orejd wd§ w¾: lsysmhla u tfyhska .¾N hk moh ;=< we;af;a h'''Zfï wkqj ysrKH.¾N
(the golden foetus/fetus or he whose foetus is made of gold )
hk moh ixlS¾K w¾:dj,shla Wiq,k nj meyeÈ,s úh hq;= h' l¾uOdr iudihla jYfhka fkd j nyqù%ys iudihla jYfhka i,lkq ,enqjfyd;a bka m%;Shudk jk ztaflaYajrhdZ hkwre; ms<sn| ó<Õg úuiSu uekú'ysrKH.¾Nh iy m%cdm;s w;r iïnkaO;dj y÷kd.kakg u;af;ka zm%cdm;sZ hkmofha uQ,sl w¾:h i,ld ne,Su jáhs' zm%cdm;s# m%cdkdx md;d jd md,hs;d jdZ hkqfjka 
1
'This latter meaning (
 garbha
 
=
egg) becomes prominent in the cosmogonic myth of the golden egg thatseperates, the two shells becoming sky and earth while the yoke is the sun...'O' Flaherti, Wendy Doniger (1994) – 
The
¤ 
 gveda, An Anthology
– Delhi, Penguin Books – p. 26
2
'This seed of fire is placed in the waters of the womb. It is also the embryo with which the waters become pregnant (verse. 07). So, too Agni is the child of the waters but also the god who spills his seed in the waters.There are interlocking rather than contradictory concepts; in the late Vedas, the father is specifically identifiedwith the son, furthermore, the egg is both a female egg (that which is fertilized by seed and which contains theembryo that is like the yolk) and a male image (the testicles containing seeds). Thus the range of meanings may be seen as a continuum of androgynous birth images, seed (male egg), womb (female egg), embryo, child...'Ibid. – p. 27

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