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B Cells & Antibody Production

B Cells & Antibody Production

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Published by: Muhammad Rawa Bin Ispal on Nov 07, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Immunity is the ability of the body to produce lymphocytes or antibodies to destroyefficiently specific foreign substances such as antigens that has been detected in body.Immunity is basically defined as the mechanisms which develop the ability of individuals torecognize foreign substances (non self) and subsequently acts to neutralize, destroy, or metabolize the substances with or involvement of pathological consequences to the individualthemselves. The immune system is also known as a diverse form of defense work together tocomplement each other. Immune system generally made up of three different componentswhich are the physical components (e.g skin and mucous membrane), the cellular components (e.g leucocytes and reticulo-enditelial cells) and the non-cellular or non- particulate components, which consists of excretory fluid (e.g sweat gland, tears, saliva, andtrachea) and body fluids and cellular contents.B cells are one of the lymphoid lineage in the immune system. B cells or also knownas B lymphocytes produces antibodies when stimulated through plasma cells. This B cellsexist as clones. B cells are produced and mature in the bone marrow and they haveglycoprotein receptors on their cell surface membranes which bind specific antigens. Thiseventually makes B cells to act as an Antigen Presenting Cell (APC) to MHC I and MHC II.Mature B cells may become memory cells or plasma cells that secrete large quantities of antibodies. Besides that, B cells also functions in the production of interleukin such as theInterleukin I production.
Antibodies are basic mediators of immunity to pathogens that survive and multiply inextracellular spaces and utilize the extracellular milieu to spread within host tissues. B cellsare the primary effectors calls of the humoral immune response. Humoral immune responseor also known as antibody mediated response is the method of antibody production (B cells).Humoral immune response also involves mainly B cells although stimulation by T cells isalso necessary. Once B cells are activated, they produce antibodies which circulate in the body fluids via plasma and lymph. (Sell, 2001)
The Maturational Process of B Cells
The maturation process in the bone marrow and involves variable region geneassembly and productive gene rearrangement leading to a large array of antibody diversity.The process also involves B cells progression through several stages associated with theelimination of autoreactive B cells by negative selection and finally the release to the periphery of mature B cells expressing membrane immunoglobulin M(mIgM) and mIgD.This process occur in an antigen independent fashion.(Pier.G.B., 2004)Upon entry into the periphery, the mature B cells are ready to respond to their cognateantigen which leads to activation of the B cells and antibody production. This processinvolves a large number of B cells components, especially the mIg on the surface andassociated structures that form the B cells antigenreceptor (BCR) and the B cells coreceptor complexinduced in signal transduction and B cells activationin responses to antigenic stimuli. B cells respond toantigen in both T cell dependent and T cellindependent fashion, depending on the nature of theantigenic stimulus and the production of antibodysecreting plasma cells depends heavily on B cellsdirectly interacting with other cells and the production of cytokines to activate and drive theantibody respond.
Figure 1:
The maturation process of B cells
B cell receptor (BCR)

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