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Heat Chap02 126

# Heat Chap02 126

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05/06/2014

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Chapter 2
Heat Conduction Equation
2-126
A spherical liquid nitrogen container is subjected to specified temperature on the inner surface and convection on the outer surface. The mathematical formulation, the variation of temperature, and the rate of evaporation of nitrogen are to be determined for steady one-dimensional heat transfer.
Assumptions
1
Heat conduction is steady and one-dimensional since there is no change with time and there is thermal symmetry about the midpoint.
2
Thermal conductivity is constant.
3
There is no heat generation.
Properties

The thermal conductivity of the tank is given to be
 !" #\$m
%&. Also,
h
fg
 !'" k(\$kg for nitrogen.
Analysis
)
a
* +oting that heat transfer is one-dimensional in the radial
r
direction, the mathematical formulation of this problem can be epressed as
-
=    
dr dT dr
and
Tr
)*
!!
!'/
= = °
&
=
dTdr hTr
)*0)*1
)
b
* 2ntegrating the differential equation once with respect to
r
gives
dT dr
!
=
3ividing both sides of the equation above by
r
to bring it to a readily integrable form and then integrating,
dT dr
=
!

T
)*
= +
!
where
!
and
are arbitrary constants. Applying the boundary conditions give
r
!
4
TC
)*
!!!!
= + =

r
4
      +=

h
!!
5olving for
C
!
and simultaneously gives
rThr CThr
!!!!!!!!!!
!!
= = + = +
)* and 5ubstituting
C
!
and into the general solution, the variation of temperature is determined to be
*\$!.-6.!)".67'&*!'/) !.!.*m!.*)&#\$m6) &#\$m!"!.!&*-!'/) !!!*)
!!!!!!!!!!!
=°+      °°°=+      =+      =++=

hr
)
c
* The rate of heat transfer through the wall and the rate of evaporation of nitrogen are determined from
)*)*)*).)*.)*).*
= = = =  = ° ° ⋅°⋅°=
777!7!"!!'/!!!"6!
!!!!
π π π π
#\$m& m*& #\$m& #\$m& m/!, # )to the tank since negative*

,,
mQh
fg
= = =
/!!'" (\$s (\$kg
1.32 kg/s
-8
!
h
-!'/%& +

Chapter 2
Heat Conduction Equation
2-127
A spherical liquid oygen container is subjected to specified temperature on the inner surface and convection on the outer surface. The mathematical formulation, the variation of temperature, and the rate of evaporation of oygen are to be determined for steady one-dimensional heat transfer.
Assumptions
1
Heat conduction is steady and one-dimensional since there is no change with time and there is thermal symmetry about the midpoint.
2
Thermal conductivity is constant.
3
There is no heat generation.
Properties

The thermal conductivity of the tank is given to be
 !" #\$m
%&. Also,
h
fg
 !9 k(\$kg for oygen.
Analysis
)
a
* +oting that heat transfer is one-dimensional in the radial
r
direction, the mathematical formulation of this problem can be epressed as
-
=    
dr dT dr
and
Tr
)*
!!
!"9
= = °
&
=
dTdr hTr
)*0)*1
)
b
* 2ntegrating the differential equation once with respect to
r
gives
dT dr
!
=
3ividing both sides of the equation above by
r
to bring it to a readily integrable form and then integrating,
dT dr
=
!

T
)*
= +
!
where
!
and
are arbitrary constants. Applying the boundary conditions give
r
!
4
TC
)*
!!!!
= + =

r
4
      +=

h
!!
5olving for
C
!
and simultaneously gives
rThr CThr
!!!!!!!!!!
!!
= = + = +
)* and 5ubstituting
C
!
and into the general solution, the variation of temperature is determined to be
*\$!.-6.!)8.6!/&*!"9) !.!.*m!.*)&#\$m6) &#\$m!"!.!&*-!"9) !!!*)
!!!!!!!!!!!
=°+      °°°=+      =+      =++=

hr
)
c
* The rate of heat transfer through the wall and the rate of evaporation of nitrogen are determined from
)*)*)*).)*.)*).*
= = = =  = ° ° ⋅°⋅°=
777!7!"!!"9!!!"6!
!!!!
π π π π
#\$m& m*& #\$m& #\$m& m)to the tank since negative*
245,450 W

,,
mQh
fg
= = =
7676!9 (\$s (\$kg
1.15 kg/s
-8!
!
h

-!"9%&
:

Chapter 2
Heat Conduction Equation
2-128
A large plane wall is subjected to convection, radiation, and specified temperature on the right surface and no conditions on the left surface. The mathematical formulation, the variation of temperature in the wall, and the left surface temperature are to be determined for steady one-dimensional heat transfer.
Assumptions
1
Heat conduction is steady and one-dimensional since the wall is large relative to its thickness, and the thermal conditions on both sides of the wall are uniform.
2
Thermal conductivity is constant.
3
There is no heat generation in the wall.
Properties

The thermal conductivity and emissivity are given to be
 ".7 #\$m
%& and
ε
 .8.
Analysis
)
a
* Taking the direction normal to the surface of the wall to be the
x
direction with
x
  at the left surface, and the mathematical formulation of this problem can be epressed as
ddx
=
and

= + = + +
dTLdxhTLTTLThTTT
)*0)*10)*1010)*1
εσ εσ
77
89
surr 7surr 7

TL
)*
= = °
76& )
b
* 2ntegrating the differential equation twice with respect to
x
yields
dT dx
=
!

TxCx
)*
= +
!
where
!
and
are arbitrary constants. Applying the boundary conditions give &onvection at
x
L

h hkC
\$1;*7/-0)10< 1*7/-0)10
7surr 7!7surr 7!
++= ++=
εσ εσ
Temperature at
x
L
4
TLCLCTCTCL
)*
= × + = =
!!
5ubstituting
C
!
and into the general solution, the variation of temperature is determined to be
*7.-)9.7"76 m*7.-) &#\$m7." 1=*'-)*9!"*0)#\$m!--.8)6./8>&*676*)&#\$m!7) &76*)1*890)10 *)*)*)
777" 7surr 7!!!
x x x Lh  x L L x x
+=°×°° +°=++ +==+=
εσ
)
c
* The temperature at
x
  )the left surface of the wall* is
C64.3
°=+=
*-7.-)9.7"76*-)

-8
76%&
ε

xh
∞

L
surr