File I/O and segment statistics
are good indicators of the health of your system. A large increase or dropfrom day to day is an indicator of a major change that needs to be investigated.Generally,
buffer and library cache hit ratios
should be greater than 95 percent for OLTP, but they could be lower for a data warehouse that genrally do many full table scans.
Tuning by wait events
is one of the best possible reactive tuning methods.
The top 5 wait events
reveal to you the largest issues on your system at the macro level.Rarely do they point you to a specific problem. Other parts of AWR will tell youwhy you are receiving the top 5 waits.Tuning
the top 25 buffer get
top 25 physical get queries
has yielded systemperformance gains of anywhere from 5 to 5000 percent. The SQL section of theSTATSPACK report tells you which queries to potentially tune first.The top 10 percent of your SQL statements should not be more than 10 percent of your buffer gets or disk reads.If the
free buffers inspected
divided by the
free buffer scans
equals less than 1, the
parameter may need to be increased.The “
” statistic divided by the “
” should not be above 1–5percent. If it is, you should increase the
)parameter in the initialization file (given that physical memory is availableto do this). Remember that the memory allocated for Sort_Area_Size is a per-user valueand PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET is across all sessions.Latches are like locks on pieces of memory (or memory buffers). If the latch
hit ratio isbelow 99 percent
, there is a serious issue, since not even the lock to get memorycould be gotten.Segment statistics are a great way to pinpoint performance problem to a given table,index, or partition. Oracle 10gR2 contains many segment-level statistics in both theAWR Report and STATSPACK.If the PINHITRATIO is less than 95 percent when the report is run for an extendedperiod of time, the SHARED_POOL_SIZE is probably too small for your best systemperformance. If the reloads are greater than 1 percent, this also points to aSHARED_POOL_SIZE that is too small.You do not set maxtrans in 10g (it defaults to 255).Never go to the block level unless you absolutely have to go there. The block level is agreat place to find hot block and ITL issues, but it takes a lot of time and energy on thepart of an advanced DBA to pinpoint problems at this level.The ADDM Report can be a helpful tuning utility, but ADDM is better used throughOracle’s Grid Control for maximum benefits.