This popular diagram (also known as an
wasdeveloped in 1950 by the late Professor Kaoru Ishikawa.
To create the diagram, the effect (symptom) is written at the head of the arrow. Potentialcauses (theories) are then added to complete the diagram. A common set of majorcategories of causes consists of personnel, work methods, materials, and equipment.Figure 5.14 shows the cause-and-effect diagram as prepared for the same list of theoriesas was arranged in Table 5.6. Note how the diagram aids in identifying interrelationshipsamong theories.Cause-and-effect diagrams were first applied to manufacturing problems. They have sincedemonstrated that they are applicable to all manner of industries, processes, and problems.As a result, they are now in universal use in every conceivable application.A cause-and-effect diagram can be combined with a
The teamidentifies the situations and events that contribute to the problem (these are the “restrainingforces”). The actions necessary to counter the restraining forces are then identified (theseactions are the “driving forces”).Finally, a diagram combining the restraining and driving forces is prepared to assist indiagnosis.