Place: Saptaparni Cave RajgrihaPatron: King Ajatasatru of Magadha No. of Participant Arhats: 500Chairperson: Mahakasypa Narrator on Sutta: Arhat Ananda Narrator on Vinaya: Arhat Upali Narrator on Matrka: Arhat MahakasyapaTime: Seven monthsAjatasatru in his early days was hostile towards Buddhism but later on he patronised it and gavehis full support. Mahakasyapa and Ananda died in the reign of Ajatasatru. Before his deathAnanda converted five hundred hermits who were brahmanas. Their leader was Madhyantia,who at the request of Ananda, went to Kashmir to introduce Buddhism there.
After Ajatasatru,several kings like Ubayibhadda, Anuruddha, Munda and Nagadasaka ascended the throneof Magadha
and they ruled simultaneously for fifty years. But we do not hear anything about the progress of Buddhism in the reigns of these kings who were neither religious nor made anycontribution to its propagation. With the death of Nagadasaka,
his minister too thethrone and Vaisali was his capital. After him
, his son became king. He was the king of Magadha for about twenty-eight years. It was during his reign the Second Buddhist Council washeld at Vaisali.
The Second Buddhist Council
Iniatiator: Revata, Yasa & SabbakamiPlace: VaisaliPatron: Kalasoka No. of Participating Arhats: 700Issue making agenda: 10 Unvinayic Acts
Result: Schism in the Old Tradition of Sthaviravada (Sthaviravada and Mahasanghika)Time: 100 years after the parinirvana of Lord BuddhaOne hundred years after the Mahaparinirvana of the Buddha, the second Council was held inVaisali in order to examine and to suppress the practices of ten Unvinayic Acts. of a group of theVajjian or Vesalian Monks. The conclusion of the council was that the ten rules followed by theVajjian monks were unlawful and were not permissible.
The ten Unvinayic Acts are: 1. The practice of carrying salt in a horn for use when needed. 2. The practice of taking food after mid-day. 3. The practice of going to a neighbouring village and taking a second meal there thesame day, committing thereby the offence of overeating. 4. The observances of uposathas in different places withinthe same sima. 5. The practice of doing an ecclesiastical act and obtaining its sanction afterwards. 6. The practice of use of precedents as authority. 7. The practice of drinking milk- whey after meal. 8. The drinking of fermenting palm-juice which is not yet toddy. 9. The use of a borderless sheet to sit. 10. The acceptance of gold and silver.