2.02.2004 Extras. 8. Annihilation and creation operators
3Proof.
From the previous lemma it follows that ˆ
a
n

z
is an eigenvector of the operatorˆ
N
andit belongs to the eigenvalue (
z
−
n
). Lemma (8.1) states that eigenvalues of ˆ
N
are nonnegative.For
n
suﬃciently large we would have (
z
−
n
)
<
0. This contradicts lemma (8.1). Hence, theremust exist an integer
n
such that relations (8.16) are satisﬁed. This completes the proof.
Theorem 8.1
The eigenvalues
z
of the operator
ˆ
N
deﬁned in Eq.(8.2) are nonnegative integers.Moreover, there exists such a normalized eigenvector

0
of
ˆ
N
that
ˆ
a

0
= 0 (8.17)
which will be called the vacuum state.
Proof.
Since a vector ˆ
a
n

z
is an eigenvector of ˆ
N
belonging to the eigenvalue
z
−
n
, we cannormalize it and write it as

z
−
n
=ˆ
a
n

z

ˆ
a
n

z

.
(8.18)Let the integer
n
be such, that Eq.(8.16) is satisﬁed. This means thatˆ
a

z
−
n
= 0
,
(8.19)and the norm of the obtained vector is

ˆ
a

z
−
n

= 0
.
(8.20)Now, from the ﬁrst of relations (8.10) it follows that

ˆ
a

z
−
n

=
√
z
−
n
= 0
.
(8.21)This implies that
z
=
n
. Hence the eigenvalues
z
of the operatorˆ
N
= ˆ
a
†
ˆ
a
are nonnegativeintegers. We also conclude that there exists a normalized vector

0
for which eq.(8.16) issatisﬁed for
n
= 0.
Theorem 8.2
According to the previous theorem, we denote by

n
the normalized eigenstate of the operator
ˆ
N
belonging to the eigenvalue
n
– nonnegative integer. Then, the vectors

n
−
1
=ˆ
a

n
√
n,
and

n
+ 1
=ˆ
a
†

n
√
n
+ 1
,
(8.22)
are the eigenstates of
ˆ
N
. These relations enable us to construct all the eigenstates of operator
ˆ
N
, provided one of the states

n
is given.
Proof.
In lemma (8.3) we have shown that the vector ˆ
a

n
is an eigenstate of ˆ
N
belongingto the eigenvalue (
n
−
1). This means (according to the introduced notation), that ˆ
a

n
isproportional to the vector

n
−
1
. It remains to ﬁnd the coeﬃcient of proportionality. Fromlemma (8.5) we have the norm

ˆ
a

n

=
√
n
. Thus the vectorˆ
a

n

ˆ
a

n

=ˆ
a

n
√
n,
(8.23)is a normalized eigenvector of ˆ
N
with eigenvalue (
n
−
1). Hence it is equal to

n
−
1
. So theﬁrst part of the theorem is proved. The second part can be shown in the same manner.Let us note that relations (8.22) can be rewritten asˆ
a

n
=
√
n

n
−
1
(8.24a)ˆ
a
†

n
=
√
n
+ 1

n
+ 1
(8.24b)
S.Kryszewski
QUANTUM OPTICS
3