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Annihilation and Creation Operators.Chapter 8

# Annihilation and Creation Operators.Chapter 8

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2.02.2004 Extras. 8. Annihilation and creation operators
1
Chapter 8
Annihilation and creation operators
8.1 General properties
We introduce two nonhermitian operators which, by deﬁnition, satisfy the canonical commuta-tion relation:
ˆ
a,
ˆ
a
= 1
.
(8.1)By
|
z
we denote a normalized eigenstate of the operatorˆ
= ˆ
a
ˆ
a
. We assume that such statesare orthogonal, since operatorˆ
is hermitian. So we haveˆ
|
z
= ˆ
a
ˆ
a
|
z
=
z
|
z
,
z
|
z
=
δ
zz
.
(8.2)
Lemma 8.1
Eigenvalue of the operator
ˆ
is real and nonnegative:
z
R
+
.
Proof.
Since
|
z
denotes the normalized eigenvector of ˆ
, we have
z
=
z
z
|
z
=
z
|
z
|
z
=
z
|
ˆ
a
ˆ
a
|
z
=
z
|
ˆ
a
( ˆ
a
|
z
)= ( ˆ
a
|
z
)
( ˆ
a
|
z
) =
||
ˆ
a
|
z
||
2
.
(8.3)So we see that
z
is equal to a norm of a certain vector, and as such is real and nonnegative.
Lemma 8.2
The following commutation relations hold
ˆ
a
ˆ
a,
ˆ
a
=
ˆ
a,
(8.4a)
ˆ
a
ˆ
a,
ˆ
a
= ˆ
a
.
(8.4b)
Proof.
By simple calculation, we get from the canonical relation (8.1):
ˆ
a
ˆ
a,
ˆ
a
= ˆ
a
[ ˆ
a,
ˆ
a
] +
ˆ
a
,
ˆ
a
ˆ
a
= ˆ
a
·
0 + (
1)ˆ
a.
ˆ
a
ˆ
a,
ˆ
a
= ˆ
a
ˆ
a,
ˆ
a
+
ˆ
a
,
ˆ
a
ˆ
a
= ˆ
a
+ 0
·
ˆ
a,
(8.5)which completes the proof.
Lemma 8.3
The ket
ˆ
a
|
z
is an eigenstate of the operator
ˆ
= ˆ
a
ˆ
a
, and it belongs to an eigenvalue
(
z
1)
, that is
ˆ
ˆ
a
|
z
= (
z
1) ˆ
a
|
z
.
(8.6)
S.Kryszewski
QUANTUM OPTICS
1

2
Extras. 8. Annihilation and creation operators 2.02.2004
Proof.
If ˆ
a
|
z
 
= 0, then we haveˆ
ˆ
a
|
z
= ˆ
a
ˆ
a
ˆ
a
|
z
.
(8.7)Due to commutation relation (8.4a) we can write ˆ
a
ˆ
a
ˆ
a
= ˆ
a
ˆ
a
ˆ
a
ˆ
a
, and henceˆ
ˆ
a
|
z
= ˆ
a
a
ˆ
a
1)
|
z
= ˆ
az
|
z
ˆ
a
|
z
= (
z
1) ˆ
a
|
z
.
(8.8)This shows that vector ˆ
a
|
z
is an eigenstate of ˆ
with an eigenvalue (
z
1).
Lemma 8.4
The ket
ˆ
a
|
z
is an eigenstate of the operator
ˆ
= ˆ
a
ˆ
a
, and it belongs to an eigenvalue
(
z
+ 1)
, that is
ˆ
ˆ
a
|
z
= (
z
+ 1) ˆ
a
|
z
.
(8.9)
Proof.
The proof is analogous to that of the previous lemma, only we use commutation relation(8.4b) instead of (8.4a).
Lemma 8.5
Norms of the vectors
ˆ
a
|
z
and
ˆ
a
|
z
are given as
||
ˆ
a
|
z
||
=
√
z ,
||
ˆ
a
|
z
||
=
√
z
+ 1
.
(8.10)
Proof.
The ﬁrst norm follows automatically from the proof of the ﬁrst lemma, see relation(8.3). The second relation is proved similarly. We have
||
ˆ
a
|
z
||
2
=
ˆ
a
|
z
ˆ
a
|
z
=
z
|
ˆ
a
ˆ
a
|
z
.
(8.11)Using the canonical commutation relation we have ˆ
a
ˆ
a
= ˆ
a
ˆ
a
+ 1, thus, we get
||
ˆ
a
|
z
||
2
=
z
|
ˆ
a
ˆ
a
+ 1
|
z
=
z
|
ˆ
a
ˆ
a
|
z
+
z
|
z
=
||
ˆ
a
|
z
||
2
+ 1 =
z
+ 1
,
(8.12)since vector
|
z
is normalized and
||
ˆ
a
|
z
||
2
=
z
. Second relation (8.10) follows immediately.
Lemma 8.6
If a vector
ˆ
a
n
|
z
 
= 0
, then it is an eigenvector of
ˆ
belonging to the eigenvalue
(
z
n
)
:
ˆ
ˆ
a
n
|
z
= (
z
n
) ˆ
a
n
|
z
(8.13)
Proof.
The proof follows by mathematical induction. The case
n
= 1 was already shown in(8.6). In the proof essential role is played by the relationˆ
ˆ
a
=ˆ
ˆ
a
ˆ
a
, which follows from(8.4a). We easily haveˆ
ˆ
a
n
+1
|
z
=ˆ
ˆ
a
a
n
|
z
] = (ˆ
a
ˆ
ˆ
a
)
a
n
|
z
] = ˆ
a
ˆ
a
n
|
z
]
ˆ
a
n
+1
|
z
(8.14)By induction assumption, we further getˆ
ˆ
a
n
+1
|
z
= ˆ
a
(
z
n
a
n
|
z
ˆ
a
n
+1
|
z
= (
z
n
1)ˆ
a
n
+1
|
z
.
(8.15)and the lemma follows.
Lemma 8.7
There exists such an integer
n
, that
ˆ
a
n
|
z
 
= 0
,
but ˆ
a
n
+1
|
z
= 0
,
(8.16)
2
QUANTUM OPTICS
S.Kryszewski

2.02.2004 Extras. 8. Annihilation and creation operators
3Proof.
From the previous lemma it follows that ˆ
a
n
|
z
is an eigenvector of the operatorˆ
andit belongs to the eigenvalue (
z
n
). Lemma (8.1) states that eigenvalues of ˆ
are nonnegative.For
n
suﬃciently large we would have (
z
n
)
<
0. This contradicts lemma (8.1). Hence, theremust exist an integer
n
such that relations (8.16) are satisﬁed. This completes the proof.
Theorem 8.1
The eigenvalues
z
of the operator
ˆ
deﬁned in Eq.(8.2) are nonnegative integers.Moreover, there exists such a normalized eigenvector
|
0
of
ˆ
that
ˆ
a
|
0
= 0 (8.17)
which will be called the vacuum state.
Proof.
Since a vector ˆ
a
n
|
z
is an eigenvector of ˆ
belonging to the eigenvalue
z
n
, we cannormalize it and write it as
|
z
n
=ˆ
a
n
|
z
||
ˆ
a
n
|
z
||
.
(8.18)Let the integer
n
be such, that Eq.(8.16) is satisﬁed. This means thatˆ
a
|
z
n
= 0
,
(8.19)and the norm of the obtained vector is
||
ˆ
a
|
z
n
||
= 0
.
(8.20)Now, from the ﬁrst of relations (8.10) it follows that
||
ˆ
a
|
z
n
||
=
√
z
n
= 0
.
(8.21)This implies that
z
=
n
. Hence the eigenvalues
z
of the operatorˆ
= ˆ
a
ˆ
a
are nonnegativeintegers. We also conclude that there exists a normalized vector
|
0
for which eq.(8.16) issatisﬁed for
n
= 0.
Theorem 8.2
According to the previous theorem, we denote by
|
n
the normalized eigenstate of the operator
ˆ
belonging to the eigenvalue
n
– nonnegative integer. Then, the vectors
|
n
1
=ˆ
a
|
n
√
n,
and
|
n
+ 1
=ˆ
a
|
n
√
n
+ 1
,
(8.22)
are the eigenstates of
ˆ
. These relations enable us to construct all the eigenstates of operator
ˆ
, provided one of the states
|
n
is given.
Proof.
In lemma (8.3) we have shown that the vector ˆ
a
|
n
is an eigenstate of ˆ
belongingto the eigenvalue (
n
1). This means (according to the introduced notation), that ˆ
a
|
n
isproportional to the vector
|
n
1
. It remains to ﬁnd the coeﬃcient of proportionality. Fromlemma (8.5) we have the norm
||
ˆ
a
|
n
||
=
√
n
. Thus the vectorˆ
a
|
n
||
ˆ
a
|
n
||
=ˆ
a
|
n
√
n,
(8.23)is a normalized eigenvector of ˆ
with eigenvalue (
n
1). Hence it is equal to
|
n
1
. So theﬁrst part of the theorem is proved. The second part can be shown in the same manner.Let us note that relations (8.22) can be rewritten asˆ
a
|
n
=
√
n
|
n
1
(8.24a)ˆ
a
|
n
=
√
n
+ 1
|
n
+ 1
(8.24b)
S.Kryszewski
QUANTUM OPTICS
3