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From Utopian Dream to Dystopian Reality George Orwell's Animal Farm, Bahareh Darvish & Mohammedreza Najjar

From Utopian Dream to Dystopian Reality George Orwell's Animal Farm, Bahareh Darvish & Mohammedreza Najjar

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American Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-223X Issue 18(2011), pp.100-106 © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2011 http://www.eurojournals.com/ajsr.htm
From Utopian Dream to Dystopian Reality: George Orwell’s Animal Farm a Case Study
Bahareh Darvish
 Department of English Language, Islamic Azad University Chalus Branch, Chalus, Iran
E-mail: barbara_lo12@yahoo.com Tel: 00989111935046
Mohammadreza Ghanbari Najjar
 Department of English Language, Islamic Azad University  Jouybar Branch, Jouybar, Iran
E-mail: ghanbari1973@yahoo.com Tel: 00989113139611; Fax: 00981243363190
The notion of utopia as an ideal state has been deeply rooted in history of man's culture, from the earliest of antiquity to the present time. Even in antiquity utopia was an ideal living state as inferred from the work of Plato, the great master of the classics; and Sir Thomas More, the great humanist and utopist. The first and the most outstanding sample of this type of work is Plato's
 which is in a dialogue form and envisages an ideal state in heavenly paradise and the next is More's
. More in his
 depicts an
ideal state in nowhere which has been the prototype of many modern utopias. But by the passage of time it becomes clear that the happiness that the utopists aspire for is just fake happiness and at the end it leads to horror and nightmare of dystopia. George Orwell’s novel,
 Animal Farm,
also depicts these two notions of utopia and dystopia. The novel is a brilliant sample of utopia which turns into dystopia. In
 Animal Farm
, the animals wish for a dreamy farm with utopian characteristics but in the end they are all left alone with a farm, filled with darkness, lies, conspiracy and broken dreams. "Power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely".
 Utopia, dystopia, George Orwell, Animal Farm,
1. Introduction
Utopia as a place for good and ideal life, from the time of Plato to the present has been associated with knowledge, morality, virtue, happiness and pleasure. This association of a utopian world to that of our own has been echoed so many times that this definition takes on metaphysical meanings, when the notion of utopia comes closer to a place in heaven, in other times particularly in modernism it has closely been associated with the notion of an ideal state with material and phenomenal cooperation, comfort and beauty. Earlier, Plato had mentioned the same ideas. He was the first to outline a plan for this ideal state which he called Republic. In More's Utopia the whole populace needs to work six hours a day regardless of sex or age and everyone must be educated. In More's Utopia each citizen is given a right to express himself in the government.
From Utopian Dream to Dystopian Reality: George Orwell’s Animal Farm a Case Study 101 Utopia is a possible response given to the anxieties and pessimistic perspective as well as to unsatisfied hopes and dreams of people who wish an ideal and desired world. It is an ancient and eternal dream of the human imagination because he has never satisfied with realities; he has recourse to this mood of thinking and writing so as to satisfy his deep urges and to introduce certain changes within reality if possible. The idea of perfect society, a society in which all people are equal and happy, developed in reaction to the misery and hardship in which most individual have existed throughout history. "Fear of want, no doubts, makes every living creature greedy and avaricious – and, in addition, man develops qualities out of pride, pride which glories in putting down other by a superfluous display of possessions. But this kind of vice has no place whatever in the Utopian way of life". (Adams 42) When the utopian writers tried to depict an endless happy society to human, the dystopian writers saw through their plans and found the risk of tyranny and oppression. Dystopia is often a deliberate attack on the idea and possibility of utopia. Dystopian writers accuse the utopists for ignoring and sacrificing worthy ideals for the sake of unworthy desires. The other important factor that the dystopian writers try to show is the failure of elite in controlling the society. According to utopians in order to have a better future, the fate of the mass must be put in the hands of elite – the creative minority of the society. But in dystopian, these elite fail to create a saner and perfect world. Dystopian literature has been characterized as a fiction that presents a negative view of the future of society and humankind. There are some other common themes that can be found in dystopian fictions: mastery of nature- to the point that it becomes barren, or turns against humankind; technological advances that enslave humans or regiment their lives; the mandatory division of people in society into castes or groups with specialized functions; and a collective loss of memory and history making mankind easier to manipulate psychologically and ultimately leading to dehumanization. There are some common traits of dystopias, although they are by no means definitive, but most dystopian literature includes at least a few of them: there is a hierarchical society where its citizens are divided into the upper, middle and lower class (caste system); The society is ruled by an upper class with few democratic ideals; all the programs of the society and its educational system is made in a way to convince them into thinking that life under the regime is good and just; there is a fear and disgust of the world outside the state; constant surveillance by the state police agencies in the state; a protagonist who often questions the society often feeling that something is terribly wrong; the condition of living among the lower and middle class of this society is generally poorer than in contemporary society.
2. Discussion
The present research tries to look at
 Animal Farm
 through a different perspective which has usually been ignored. This novel is usually categorized under the title of dystopian fiction. As a matter of fact, the procedure of this disaster has not been discussed in detail. The researchers focus on this new aspect of this novel that is following up the trend of shaping a dystopian society out of utopian ideals and dreams.
 Animal Farm
 is the story of the animals that rebel against their master in order to build a utopian farm. At the end they are in the same situation but in the control of pigs. Orwell's “
 Animal Farm
is a satiric portrait of a real society, an anti – utopian which, by caste gating real evil, suggests what society ought to be like" (Meyers 103). In this novel the animals of Manor Farm transformed their farm into a utopia to suit all their basic needs. The animals established one central belief system that everyone could understand and follow on the farm, which they called animalism. The first thing that can deem
 Animal Farm
 as a utopia novel is its location. As far as mentioned all the utopias occur in a far and unknown place. The place is isolated from others and its populace tries to make an ideal place where everyone is happy, free and equal.
102 Bahareh Darvish and Mohammadreza Ghanbari Najjar The physical location of Manor Farm is shown to be an ideal setting far a utopian community: it is a pleasant place to look at, it is isolated from outside interferences, and it is suitable for establishing the kind of pastoral life which Old Major dreams of. (Allen et al, 14) Every writer of utopian literature suggests the principles and matters which do not exist around him and he yearns for them the same as Old Major does in
 Animal Farm.
Old Major aspires for a kind of land where everyone is free and equal. He has a utopian vision; his idea is a simple, agricultural way of life, living off the products of the farm, the song "Beasts of England" describes this kind life: the only "riches" in this song are barely and wheat and other foods for the animals. As Major describes, it is a dream of past the same as other utopian writer's dream. Utopian writers and also Old Major feel nostalgic for the past and yearn for the excellent future: Only get rid of Man, and the produce of our labor would be our own. Almost overnight we could become rich and free. What then must we do? Why, work night and day body and soul, for the overthrow of the human race! That is my message to you, comrades: Rebellion! I do not know when that Rebellion will come, it might be in a week or in a hundred years, but I know, as surely as I see this straw beneath my feet, that sooner or later justice will be done. Fix your eyes on that, comrades, throughout the short remainder of your lives! And above all, pass on that future generations shall carry on the struggle until it is victorious. (Orwell 10) After the first meeting, which Old Major explained his dream for the animal, Snowball and Napoleon especially and other pigs in general take the control of animals and organize, teach and make them ready for the rebellion. The pigs elaborate Old Major's teachings into a system that they called animalism. Just like what Thomas More asserts in his
they assemble meeting and discuss about what they must do and Snowball and Napoleon act like the philarch in More's utopia. Before Rebellion Snowball and Napoleon and Squealer prepared most of the work: These three had elaborated Old Major's teachings into a complete system of thought, to which they gave the name of Animalism. Several nights a week, after Mr. Jones was asleep, they held secret meetings in the barn and expounded the principles of Animalism to the other. At the beginning they met with such stupidity and apathy. Some of the animals talked of the duty of loyalty to Mr. Jones, whom they referred to as 'Master', or made elementary remarks such as 'Mr. Jones feeds us. If he were gone, we should starve to death.' Others asked such questions as 'Why should we care what happens after we are dead?', and the pigs had great difficulty in making them see that this was contrary to the spirit of Animalism. (16) As it goes on animals try to do their best at the harvest despite many difficulties they encountered. Like the utopians they try for the welfare of all and their society. How they toiled and sweated to get the hay in! But their efforts were rewarded, for the harvest was an even bigger success than they had hoped. Sometimes the work was hard; the implements had been designed for human beings and not for animals, and it was a great drawback that no animal was able to use any tool that involved standing on his hind legs. But the pigs were so clever that they could think of a way round every difficulty. As for the horse, they knew every inch of the field, and in fact understood the business of mowing and raking far better than Jones and his men had ever done. (25) All the animals regardless of their age, like the utopians of Sir Thomas More's, and in accordance to their strength did everything they could at the harvest: And every animal down to the humblest worked at turning the hay and gathering it. Even the ducks and hens toiled to and fro all day in the sun, carrying tiny wisps of hay in their beaks. In the end they finished the harvest in two day's less time than it had usually taken Jones and his men. Moreover, it was the biggest harvest that the farm had

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