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Applied Electromagnetics

Applied Electromagnetics

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Published by liubingxy
A very nice Applied Electromagnetics book.
A very nice Applied Electromagnetics book.

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Published by: liubingxy on Nov 08, 2009
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08/03/2013

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Contents
1 Introduction 3
1.1 Electromagnetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.2 Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.3 Frequency domain, sinusoidal regime, phasors . . . . . . . . . . . 51.4 Polarisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.4.1 Linear polarisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.4.2 Circular polarisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2 Maxwells Equations 11
2.1 Differential and integral formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112.2 Constitutive equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142.3 Conservation of energy - Poynting’s vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172.4 Boundary conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202.5 Elementary dipole sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232.6 Potentials and Greens functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252.7 Wave equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302.8 Image theory and image sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3 Electrostatics 35
3.1 Maxwell’s equations in the static case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353.2 Coulomb force and the electric field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363.3 The electric potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383.4 Dielectrics - Electric dipole - Polarisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413.5 Boundary conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443.6 Conductors - Resistance - Joule’s law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443.7 Capacitance - Capacitance matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493.8 Electrostatic energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533.9 Solution of Laplaces equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553.9.1 The nite dierence technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563.9.2 The integral equation technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
4 Magnetostatics 65
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 654.2 Lorentz force and the magnetic induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 654.3 The magnetic field and Biot-Savart’s law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 684.4 The vector potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 704.5 Magnetic dipole - Magnetisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 714.6 Boundary conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75i
 
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CONTENTS 
4.7 Inductance - Inductance matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 764.8 Magnetostatic energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 804.9 Two-dimensional signal lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
5 Plane Waves 87
5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 875.2 Plane waves in a lossless dielectric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 885.3 Plane waves in a lossy dielectric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 915.4 Reflection and transmission at a planeinterface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 935.4.1 Normal incidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 935.4.2 Oblique incidence and Snell’s law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 965.5 Reflection at good conductor -Surface impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
6 Transmission Lines 107
6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1076.2 The telegraphers equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1096.3 Voltage reection coecient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1136.4 Input impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1156.5 Generalised reflection coecient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1186.6 Power ow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1196.7 Standing waves and VSWR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1196.8 The Smith chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1216.8.1 Generalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1216.8.2 Elementary Smith chart applications . . . . . . . . . . . . 1246.9 Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1266.10 Transients on a transmission line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
7 Multiconductor Lines and Waveguides 137
7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1377.2 General eigenmode equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1387.3 Multiconductor transmission lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1407.3.1 Geometry of the problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1407.3.2 Quasi-TEM equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1417.3.3 Quasi-TEM modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1447.4 TEM modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1487.5 TE and TM modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1497.6 Mode orthogonality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1517.7 The parallel-plate waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1527.7.1 TEM mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1547.7.2 Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1547.7.3 TE and TM modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1567.7.4 Phase and group velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1587.8 The rectangular waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1597.9 The coaxial line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1627.10 The microstrip and the stripline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
 
CONTENTS 
iii
8 Antennas and Radiation 167
8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1678.2 The far field of a current source in free space . . . . . . . . . . . 1688.3 Directivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1708.4 Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1718.4.1 Radiation impedance of a transmitting antenna . . . . . . 1718.5 Equivalent circuit of a transmitting antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . 1748.6 Open circuit voltage of a receiving antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . 1758.7 Equivalent circuit of a receiving antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1778.8 Effective cross-section of a receiving antenna . . . . . . . . . . . 1788.8.1 Antenna link: Friis formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1818.9 Thin wire antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1838.9.1 Half-wavelength dipole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1878.9.2 Very short dipole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1888.10 Antenna arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1898.11 Overview of different types of antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
A Vector Analysis in Three Dimensions 201
A.1 Multiplicative relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201A.2 Dierential relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201A.3 Integral relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202A.4 Co-ordinate systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203A.4.1 Cylindrical co-ordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203A.4.2 Spherical co-ordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

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