The home of textEnergy project to studentssynthesis of energy andentropy.
the entropy of the universe must increase in all processes (includingchemical processes), and energy is transformed from one form to another (including from heat to any other form) so long as the second law is not violated. For example, a gas may expand and thus allow some of itsheat to do work, but this is only possible because the net entropy of the universe
due to the gasexpansion, more than it
(so called because they appear as linear features in dispersionspectra (see example above),
such as might be produced by a prismor diffraction grating) are postulated to be due to a certain specific
amount of energy involved in the transition of atoms or molecules, from one state to another. Because acharactistic magnitude of energy is associated with a characteristic frequency (and wavelength) of light (or other electromagnetic radiation), such lines in spectra are direct clues to energetic changes which are permitted to happen only at certain energies, and not others.The
of a chemical reaction (at given temperature T) is related to a yet another concept,activationenergy. The activation energy E, of a chemical reaction, can be visualized as the height of a barrier of energy separating two minima of the energy of the chemically reacting system (the energy of reactants andthe energy of products). Thus, according tostatistical mechanicsthe rate of chemical reactions is proportional to the Boltzmann's population factor
, that is the population of molecules having energygreater than or equal to E at the temperature T. This exponential dependence of a reaction rate ontemperature is known as the Arrhenius equation.