• A cosmology in which the uni-verse takes on a meaning regardingone or more supernatural forces. Theconception of Man exceeds theboundaries of his terrestrial exis-tence. There is a before and an after.The finite character of Man is notaccepted.• A moral which stems from thiscosmology. It supplies directives andguidelines in accordance with thesuggested meaning of the universe.• Tools which put human beingsin contact with the supernaturalprinciple: prayer, religious cere-monies, techniques of meditation.• A community of followers,however small, which is capable of maintaining and reproducing thebeliefs and of managing the benefitsof salvation.The combination of these ele-ments makes it possible to distin-guish religions:(1) from deist philosophies, whichprovide a cosmology and a meaningfor existence but which are notintended to link human beings withsupernatural powers;(2) from individual magic,intended to obtain empirical resultsthrough the use of empirical tech-niques;(3) from deist organizations suchas
which acknowledgethe existence of the Grand Architectof the Universe but whose cere-monies are not directed to puttingMan in relation with Him.
i.ii. The Contents of Scientology
Scientology contains a cosmology,an anthropology, ethics, religiousceremonies, an auditing method,a method for purifying the body,training methods, a theory of commu-nication.
The Cosmology: The Supernaturalin Scientology
The founder, L. Ron Hubbard(1911-86), renews the thesis of pri-mordial spirits. He asserts that beforethe birth of the universe, spirits exist-ed, which he calls
They werenon-material, massless beings withouttemporal limits, occupying no space,omniscient, omnipotent, indestruc-tible, immortal and capable of creat-ing anything. These intangible beings,along with the Supreme Being, creat-ed the universe. In doing so, they gotcaught in their own trap and got stuckin their creation—and especially inMan—i.e., in matter, energy, spaceand time (MEST, the physical uni-verse), even forgetting that they werethe creators. Thus they lost theirpower and omniscience and becamevulnerable human beings. Since thattime, they have returned, life after life,inhabiting different bodies. Today,thetans have forgotten their true spir-itual identity and believe they arehuman bodies. Hence, Man has a spir-itual origin: he is altogether a body, amind and a thetan.This is a gnostic version of the fallof perfect man into imperfection and atransposition of Greek drama, wherethe Gods interfere in human affairsand are trapped.