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Electronics Ch12

# Electronics Ch12

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Published by: bojan 2 on May 08, 2014

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05/08/2014

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CHAPTER 12 SIGNAL GENERATORS AND WAVEFORM-SHAPING CIRCUITS
Chapter Outline
12.1 Basic Principles of Sinusoidal Oscillators12.2 Op Amp-RC Oscillators12.3 LC and Crystal Oscillators12.4 Bistable Multivibrators12.5 Generation of Square and Triangular Waveforms using Astable Multivibrators12.6 Generation of a Standardized Pulse-The Monostable Multivibrators
NTUEE Electronics L. H. Lu
12-1
12.7 Integrated-Circuit Timers12.8 Nonlinear Waveform-Shaping Circuits12.9 Precision Rectifier Circuits

12.1 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SINUSOIDAL OSCILLATORS
Types of Oscillators
Linear oscillator:
Employs a positive feedback loop consisting of an amplifier and a frequency-selective network.
Some form of nonlinearity has to be employed to provide control of the amplitude of the output.
Nonlinear oscillator:
Generates square, triangular, pulse waveforms.
Employs multivibrators: bistable, astable and monostable.
The Oscillator Feedback Loop and Oscillation Criterion
Positive feedback loop analysis:
NTUEE Electronics L. H. Lu
12-2
Barkhausen criterion:
The phase of loop gain should be zero at

0
.
The magnitude of the loop gain should be unity at

0
.
The characteristic equation has roots at
s
=
j

0
.
Stability of oscillation frequency:

0
is determined solely by the phase characteristics.
A “steep” function

(

) results in a more stable frequency.
)()()(:gainloop  )()(1 )(
ss As L ss As x xs A
io f
  
1)()()(
000


j j A j L

Nonlinear Amplitude Control
Oscillation: loop gain
A

= 1
Growing output: loop gain
A

> 1
Decaying output: loop gain
A

< 1
Oscillation mechanism:
Initiating oscillation: loop gain slightly larger than unity (poles in RHP).
Gain control: nonlinear network reduces loop gain to unity (poles on
j

-axis).
Limiter Circuits for Amplitude Control
For small amplitude (
D
1
off,
D
2
off)
NTUEE Electronics L. H. Lu
12-3
incremental gain (slope) =
R
/
R
1
For large negative swing (
D
1
on,
D
2
off)
incremental gain (slope) =
(
R
||
R
4
)/
R
1
For large positive swing (
D
1
off,
D
2
on)
incremental gain (slope) =
(
R
||
R
3
)/
R
1
O A
v R R R R R Rv
322323
O B
v R R R R R Rv
545544
D
R R R R R L
23223

D
R R R R R L
55454

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