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Electronics Ch12

Electronics Ch12

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Published by: bojan 2 on May 08, 2014
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CHAPTER 12 SIGNAL GENERATORS AND WAVEFORM-SHAPING CIRCUITS
Chapter Outline
12.1 Basic Principles of Sinusoidal Oscillators12.2 Op Amp-RC Oscillators12.3 LC and Crystal Oscillators12.4 Bistable Multivibrators12.5 Generation of Square and Triangular Waveforms using Astable Multivibrators12.6 Generation of a Standardized Pulse-The Monostable Multivibrators
NTUEE Electronics L. H. Lu
 12-1
12.7 Integrated-Circuit Timers12.8 Nonlinear Waveform-Shaping Circuits12.9 Precision Rectifier Circuits
 
12.1 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SINUSOIDAL OSCILLATORS
Types of Oscillators
Linear oscillator:
Employs a positive feedback loop consisting of an amplifier and a frequency-selective network.
Some form of nonlinearity has to be employed to provide control of the amplitude of the output.
 Nonlinear oscillator:
Generates square, triangular, pulse waveforms.
Employs multivibrators: bistable, astable and monostable.
The Oscillator Feedback Loop and Oscillation Criterion
Positive feedback loop analysis:
NTUEE Electronics L. H. Lu
 12-2
Barkhausen criterion:
The phase of loop gain should be zero at
 
0
.
The magnitude of the loop gain should be unity at
 
0
.
The characteristic equation has roots at
s
=
 j
 
0
.
Stability of oscillation frequency:
  
0
is determined solely by the phase characteristics.
A “steep” function
 
(
 
) results in a more stable frequency.
)()()(:gainloop  )()(1 )(
 ss As L ss As x xs A
io f 
    
1)()()(
000
 
  
 j j A j L
 
Nonlinear Amplitude Control
Oscillation: loop gain
 A
  
= 1
Growing output: loop gain
 A
  
> 1
Decaying output: loop gain
 A
  
< 1
Oscillation mechanism:
Initiating oscillation: loop gain slightly larger than unity (poles in RHP).
Gain control: nonlinear network reduces loop gain to unity (poles on
 j
 
-axis).
Limiter Circuits for Amplitude Control
For small amplitude (
 D
1
off,
 D
2
off)
NTUEE Electronics L. H. Lu
 12-3
incremental gain (slope) =
 R
/
 R
1
For large negative swing (
 D
1
on,
 D
2
off)
incremental gain (slope) =
(
 R
||
 R
4
)/
 R
1
For large positive swing (
 D
1
off,
 D
2
on)
incremental gain (slope) =
(
 R
||
 R
3
)/
 R
1
O A
 v R R R R R Rv
322323
 O B
 v R R R R R Rv
545544
 D
 R R R R R L
23223
 
 D
 R R R R R L
55454
 

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