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Medical Surgical Nursing Bullets

Medical Surgical Nursing Bullets

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Published by Jennye

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Published by: Jennye on Nov 09, 2009
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06/26/2013

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Medical Surgical Nursing Bullets (NLE & NCLEX)
 
In a patient with hypokalemia (serum potassium level below 3.5 mEq/L),presenting signs and symptoms include muscle weakness and cardiacarrhythmias.
During cardiac arrest, if an I.V. route is unavailable, epinephrine can beadministered endotracheally.
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Pernicious anemia results from the failure to absorb vitamin B12 in the GItract and causes primarily GI and neurologic signs and symptoms.
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A patient who has a pressure ulcer should consume a high-protein, high-calorie diet, unless contraindicated.
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The CK-MB isoenzyme level is used to assess tissue damage in myocardialinfarction.
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After a 12-hour fast, the normal fasting blood glucose level is 80 to 120mg/dl.
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A patient who is experiencing digoxin toxicity may report nausea,vomiting, diplopia, blurred vision, light flashes, and yellow-green halosaround images.
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Anuria is daily urine output of less than 100 ml.
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In remittent fever, the body temperature varies over a 24-hour period,but remains elevated.
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Risk of a fat embolism is greatest in the first 48 hours after the fracture of a long bone. It’s manifested by respiratory distress.
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To help venous blood return in a patient who is in shock, the nurse shouldelevate the patient’s legs no more than 45 degrees. This procedure iscontraindicated in a patient with a head injury.
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The pulse deficit is the difference between the apical and radial pulserates, when taken simultaneously by two nurses.
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To reduce the patient’s risk of vomiting and aspiration, the nurse shouldschedule postural drainage before meals or 2 to 4 hours after meals.
 
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Blood pressure can be measured directly by intra-arterial insertion of acatheter connected to a pressure-monitoring device.
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A positive Kernig’s sign, seen in meningitis, occurs when an attempt toflex the hip of a recumbent patient causes painful spasms of the hamstringmuscle and resistance to further extension of the leg at the knee.
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In a patient with a fractured, dislocated femur, treatment begins withreduction and immobilization of the affected leg.
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Herniated nucleus pulposus (intervertebral disk) most commonly occurs inthe lumbar and lumbosacral regions.
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Laminectomy is surgical removal of the herniated portion of anintervertebral disk.
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Surgical treatment of a gastric ulcer includes severing the vagus nerve(vagotomy) to reduce the amount of gastric acid secreted by the gastriccells.
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Valsalva’s maneuver is forced exhalation against a closed glottis, as whentaking a deep breath, blowing air out, or bearing down.
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When mean arterial pressure falls below 60 mm Hg and systolic bloodpressure falls below 80 mm Hg, vital organ perfusion is seriouslycompromised.
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Lidocaine (Xylocaine) is the drug of choice for reducing prematureventricular contractions.
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A patient is at greatest risk of dying during the first 24 to 48 hours after amyocardial infarction.
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During a myocardial infarction, the left ventricle usually sustains thegreatest damage.
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The pain of a myocardial infarction results from myocardial ischemiacaused by anoxia.
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For a patient in cardiac arrest, the first priority is to establish an airway.
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The universal sign for choking is clutching the hand to the throat.
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For a patient who has heart failure or cardiogenic pulmonary edema,nursing interventions focus on decreasing venous return to the heart and
 
increasing left ventricular output. These interventions include placing thepatient in high Fowler’s position and administering oxygen, diuretics, andpositive inotropic drugs as prescribed.
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A positive tuberculin skin test is an induration of 10 mm or greater at theinjection site.
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The signs and symptoms of histoplasmosis, a chronic systemic fungalinfection, resemble those of tuberculosis.
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In burn victims, the leading cause of death is respiratory compromise.The second leading cause is infection.
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The exocrine function of the pancreas is the secretion of enzymes used todigest carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
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A patient who has hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) should consume a dietthat’s moderately high in fat and high in carbohydrate and protein, andshould eat the largest meal in the morning.
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Esophageal balloon tamponade shouldn’t be inflated greater than 20 mmHg.
Overproduction of prolactin by the pituitary gland can cause galactorrhea(excessive or abnormal lactation) and amenorrhea (absence of menstruation).
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Intermittent claudication (pain during ambulation or other movementthat’s relieved with rest) is a classic symptom of arterial insufficiency in theleg.
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In bladder carcinoma, the most common finding is gross, painlesshematuria.
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Parenteral administration of heparin sodium is contraindicated in patientswith renal or liver disease, GI bleeding, or recent surgery or trauma; inpregnant patients; and in women older than age 60.
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Drugs that potentiate the effects of anticoagulants include aspirin, chloralhydrate, glucagon, anabolic steroids, and chloramphenicol.
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For a burn patient, care priorities include maintaining a patent airway,preventing or correcting fluid and electrolyte imbalances, controlling pain,and preventing infection.

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