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Published by emissaryofyhvh
Sociology of Religion article
Sociology of Religion article

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Published by: emissaryofyhvh on May 09, 2014
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Education, Religiosity and Moral Attitudes: Explaining Cross-National Effect DifferencesAuthor(s): Peer Scheepers, Manfred Te Grotenhuis and Frans Van Der SlikSource:
Sociology of Religion,
Vol. 63, No. 2 (Summer, 2002), pp. 157-176Published by:
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This content downloaded from 146.7.113.210 on Mon, 15 Apr 2013 03:32:31 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
 
Sociology f Religion 002, 3:2 157-176
Education, eligiosity nd Moral Attitudes: Explaining ross-National ffect ifferences
Peer
cheepers*
Manfred e Grotenhuis Frans an Der lik
University f Nijmegen The Netherlands The im f he resent tudy s to nswer hree esearch uestions n moral ttitudes i.e., attitudes oncerning bortion, remarital nd xtramarital elations, nd homosexual elations). Which arental nd ndividual haracteristics ffect oral ttitudes? o the ffects f arental nd individual haracteristics ary cross ountries? nd, f o, can these ffect ifferences n moral issues e xplained y national haracteristics? o answer hese uestions, e use he 991 SSP database ontaining elevant ata f 6,604 nhabitants f 5 countries. ypotheses re ested sing multi-level nalyses. e ind hat arental nd ndividual eligiosity, s well s ndividual ducational attainment, ave trong ffects n moral ttitudes. owever, e bserve onsiderable ffect iffer- ences cross ountries, hich s a rather ew inding. ffects f ndividual eligiosity n moral attitudes ppear o be tronger n more eligious ountries nd weaker n more ecularized ountries. Effects f ndividual ducation re tronger n more eligiously eterogeneous ountries nd weaker n more eligiously omogeneous ountries. inally, ffects f ndividual ducation n moral ttitudes are weaker n hort-standing emocracies han n ong- tanding nes.
EDUCATION, ELIGIOSITY ND MORAL
ATTITUDES: QUESTIONS
Debates n moral ssues ave, ime nd gain, isrupted amily atherings,
community eetings, olitical onventions nd even nations s a whole,
because eople end o hold trong nd ivergent iews n hese atters. he
legal ermissibility f bortion as been n the olitical nd he ublic gendas
for many ears. he ermissibility f xtramarital elationships as een n he private genda f many ouples n ountries ll ver he world, articularly ince
the ate 1960s.
Drect esponden to eer chees, Departme f MedWology, nversity f Nqmegen,
.O.
Box 104, 6500 E Nqmegen, he eteknds. maid: .s&km
.
w .k=m
157
This content downloaded from 146.7.113.210 on Mon, 15 Apr 2013 03:32:31 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
 
158
SOCIOLOGY OF RELIGION
One of he most requently ound elationships s hat ell-educated eople are more n favor f iberal iews n moral ssues Hyman nd Wright 979; Vogt 997). n recent tudy, ayes 1995:188) laims hat he ffect f duca- tion s similar cross ountries, hereas eil 1985) laims hat he ffect f education aries cross ountries. hese nconsistent indings ay e due o he differential ffects f national ontexts, s was uggested y Vogt 1997:62-64). There re lso requent eports n the elationship etween eligion nd moral attitudes Ebaugh nd Haney 978; elen 984; picer 994; cheepers nd Van
Der Slik 1998). In a recent ross-national tudy, he contention s that n
shaping n ndividual's eligious ttitudes, he eligious haracter f nation s
an mportant ormative actor, ext o parental r ndividual haracteristics. he
authors uggest hat his might lso hold rue or ther ttitudes Kelley nd De Graaf 997:654). ll of hese ropositions nd findings uggest hat articular characteristics f he ational ontext ay ffect he trength f he elationship between ndividual haracteristics nd moral ttitudes. n this ontribution e
set out to elaborate pon hese uggestions, erive ypotheses nd then est
them sing ross-national ata. We will nswer he ollowing uestions. irst, which arental nd ndividual haracteristics ffect oral ttitudes? econd nd of more nterest s the uestion f whether hese ffects n moral ssues ary
across ountries. nd f o, hird, o what xtent an the ifferences n effects f
parental nd ndividual haracteristics n moral ttitudes e explained y
national haracteristics?
THEORIES AND HYPOTHESES
The arguments ffered or he assertion hat effects f individual harac- teristics n moral ttitudes may vary cross ountries re based on the idea of differential ocialization rocesses. he first rucial dea s that ffects f ndivid- ual characteristics mply xposure o similar socializing gents' which may ffect compliance with similar ocial norms, general thesis already stated by Durkheim [18971 1951). The second dea s that xposure o similar socializing circumstances' ay ffect imilar alues nd similar ways f behavior, general thesis nspired y Mannheim [19361 1972). Whereas Durkheim efers o social institutions n which he individual s incorporated family, eligious ommu- nity, chool), Mannheim efers o larger ational ontexts the political ystem, religious haracteristics f a nation as a whole). In the next sections we will elaborate pon hese ocializing gents nd circumstances.
Hypotheses egarding ffects f arental nd ndividual Characteristics n Moral ttitudes
Of course, here re many ocializing gents n the lives of individuals, among which parents ppear to be most nfluential Benson, Donahue, and
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