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Proceeding of the 3rd International Conference on Informatics and Technology,

Proceeding of the 3rd International Conference on Informatics and Technology,

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Proceeding of the 3rd International Conference on Informatics and Technology, 2009
 
©Informatics '09, UM 2009
 
 RDT1 -
 
45
Processy(k+1)
 
y(k+1)
 
Process Inverse
Software for Neural-Network Based Inverse Modeling and Control of Temperature Process
Shazzat Hossain 
1
, Prof. Dr. Mohd Azlan Hussain 
1
,
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Rosli Omar 
1
 1
Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.Email: {shazzad2334@yahoo.com, mohd_azlan@um.edu.my, rosli_omar@um.edu.my
 
} 
ABSTRACT 
The objective of this paper is to present a neural network software tool used to train the process model and control the process. Depending on the form of process model, different control strategies can be developed. If an accurate model of a process is available and if its inverse exists then process dynamics can be cancelled by the inverse.Inverse of a process is defined as finding the inverse mapping of the process, i.e. mapping output to input of the process. To achieve this objective we investigate the use of the neural-network-based inverse model control strategy to control temperature process system, a software tool developed for training the inverse of process and used the model as controller for the process. Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is used for training the process and later the software, the control strategy, the real-time control result provided 
Keywords: Neural Network, Inverse Modeling, Control 
1.0 Introduction
Traditionally, accurate mathematical model-based strategies have been applied to deal with control problems [1].However, the need to meet demanding control requirements in increasingly complex dynamical control systemsunder significant uncertainties makes neural networks very attractive, because of its ability to learn, to approximatedfunctions. Neural networks do appear to be able to implement many functions essential to control systems with higherdegree of autonomy. Artificial neural networks have showed a great potential for modeling and controlling poorlyunderstood and highly non-linear systems. Due to the non-linear nature of the units, neural networks are able tocapture very well the non-linear structure of the most real-world processes. The applications of neural networks tocontrol systems have become increasingly important. The massive parallel processing, nonlinear mapping, and self-learning abilities of neural networks have been motivating factors for development of intelligent control systems [2-8].According to Narendra and Mukopadhyay [11], the success of neural networks in control problems is based on thecapabilities of the neural networks to cope with three main difficulties encountered in control: complexity, nonlinearity,and uncertainty. Scott [] has divided the approaches of using neural networks in control into four groups: directnetwork control, inverse control, model-based control, and supervisory control.Depending on the form of process model, different control strategies can be developed. We know if an accuratemodel of a process is available and if its inverse exist then process dynamics can be cancelled by the inverse.Inverse of a process is defined as finding the inverse mapping of the process, i.e. mapping output to input of theprocess. Then, in an ideal situation, the dynamics of the controller could simply be made equal to the process inversedynamics mode as shown in the figures [1, 2, and 3].
Fig. 1: Forward Dynamics
 
Fig. 2: Inverse Dynamics
 
Fig. 3: Inverse model control
 
u(k)u(k)
 
Proceeding of the 3rd International Conference on Informatics and Technology, 2009
 
©Informatics '09, UM 2009
 
 RDT1 -
 
46 
So, it is useful to know the inverse dynamics of a process in order to control it. In other words, model based controldesign has the potential to provide perfect control. But obtaining a perfect model is not possible always while themodel also contain some degree of errors. Moreover all models may not be invertible, so perfect control is verydifficult to realize. However, the universal approximation capabilities of the multilayer neural network have made itpopular choice for complex process dynamics and for implementing general-purpose nonlinear controllers [9]. Neuralnetworks have been employed to identify inverse dynamics models of unknown process through learning [2-8]. In theinverse control, a neural network is trained to learn the inverse dynamics of the process, in order to predict theprocess inputs which produce the desired outputs.When neural networks originally were proposed for controlling unknown non-linear systems, one of the first methodsbeing reported was on training a net-work to act as the inverse of the system and use this as a controller. Explainedin brief, the basic principle is as follows:Assuming that the system to be controlled can be described byy(t+1) = g[ y(t),……, y(t-n+1), u(t),….. u(t-m)]the desired network is then the one that isolates the most recent control input, u(t),u
1
(t) = g
-1
[y(t+1), y(t),…., y(t-n+1), u(t),….u(t-m)]Assuming such a network has somehow been obtained, it can be used for controlling the system by substituting theoutput at time t+1 by the desired output, the reference, r(t+1). If the network represents the exact inverse, the controlinput produced by it will thus drive the system output at time t+1 to r(t+1)Temperature control system, for example, is very complex system, because of the nonlinearities and uncertainties ofa system. Conventional control approaches are not convenient to solve the complexities [10]. Due to this wedeveloped a software tool for training purpose and used the trained inversed model of the process as controller toreal-time controlling the process.
2.0 Inverse Model training using the software tool
Using the software tool it’s easy to train the neural network. For getting the expected inverse of the process we needto obtain real-time open-loop excitation data. After data acquisition we trained the open-loop data for getting theaccurate inverse of the process. The software tool is flexible and user friendly enough to train any structure of neuralnetwork, i.e reconfigurable. To get better training we used several sets of training data and validation data sets. Thegeneralized inverse neural network structure can be shown as follows:Fig. 4: Inverse Model StructureAccording to the figure inverse neural network can have any number of inputs, input can be previous outputs ofdelay 1 to m, previous control action to the process of delay from 1 to n and of course the set point or expectedoutput. The neural network is trained to learn the inverse dynamics of the process system by using general trainingmethod. Open loop system was used to obtain the system response curve for the plant response to a random inputInverseNeural NetworkSet point
 
ProcessOut put
 
u
 
d
-n
d
-1
d
-1
d
-m
 
Proceeding of the 3rd International Conference on Informatics and Technology, 2009
 
©Informatics '09, UM 2009
 
 RDT1 -
 
47 
signal to the process system given, ranging from the minimum to the maximum of the operating interest. Among thedata sets, we choose few sets of data for training and few for validation. We used to train with different structure, i.e.different numbers of delay inputs to the neural network. A three layer neural network (input layer, hidden layer, outputlayer) with various numbers of hidden nodes is used to train the network. Here in the Table 1, shows the trainingresult with different input delays.Table 1: Training result comparison
PreviousoutputsPreviousinputsHiddenNeuronsMSE AE Epochs1 1 6 0.014699275548045398 0.026198605737170772 70132 1 8 0.014359215173637854 0.029034384383462883 70333 1 10 0.014729097053905113 0.025580109913623316 70683 2 10 0.016359215173637854 0.039034384383462883 71304 1 12 0.015480267502261978 0.032047678106483333 72073 2 12 0.00255584126986296 0.00969590406966572 5000
Here number of previous inputs means, number of delay considered. The number of hidden neurons taken is doubleof total number of inputs in each case. From the above training results in Table 1, it shows that, three previousoutputs of the process and two previous inputs to the process taken for training gives best result. It’s heuristic tochoose number of inputs and number of delays, hidden neurons, transfer functions etc. in the following figurestraining data and training, testing result presented.Fig. 5: One of the training data setsA set of data was created and indicated the behavior of the plant response to a characteristic input signal. It wasdesigned to fall within the operating range of the control valve and sensors. One of the data sets is shown in Fig. 5,used for training the inverse model. Here the Valve opening is the process input and Temperature is the processoutput. Once the training portion is completed, it needs to be verified with the training results. A selection of similardata was created for testing the trained network. One of the testing data set with result shown in the following Fig. 6.

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