Codex: a early bookConclusions: alphabetic writing slowly transformed western society. Alphabetic writingwas easy to learn and literacy was put with in reach of ordinary people, in contrast tothe Egyptian and Mesopotamian cultures.
Chinese contribute:Relief printing block printInvention of paperChopsCalligraphy:
A purely visual language
Invented by Ts-an Chieh
A graphic character or sign that represents an entire wordEarly forms of Chinese calligraphy: four phases
Chia-ku-wen: bone or shell script
Chin-wen: bronze script: food
Bone-size authorityBlood texture of inkMuscle –spirit or vital force
The invention of paper
:Invented by ts’ai lunHis process for making paper stayed almost unchanged until nineteenth-centuryEngland mechanized it.
The discovery of printing:
Relief printing: parchment.Chops: made out of jade, ivory, silver, or gold. For legal document, contrast, and trade.Ink rubbings:Currency and religious textsConfucian classics and playing cardsMoveable type:Invented around 1045 AD.
Two great traditions of manuscript illumination: combined detailed typography withpictures, color, and used presets material: gold, silver, leather, and jewel.3