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Appendix Linear Programming

# Appendix Linear Programming

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10/04/2013

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Appendix
1

Appendix: Linear ProgrammingSolution Methods
Although the graphical solution method that was presented in Chapter 8 is a useful learn-ing device for those with limited knowledge of linear programming (LP),other meth-ods are used daily in the worlds of business and government to solve real LP problems.Preeminent among these are the
simplex
,
transportation
,and
assignment
methods.
IntroductionSimplex Method
Simplex Maximization SolutionsSimplex Minimization SolutionsInterpreting Simplex SolutionsPostoptimality AnalysisUnusual Features of Some LP Problems
Transportation Method
Characteristics of Transportation ProblemsSolution Procedures of the Transportation MethodUnbalanced ProblemsDegeneracy
Assignment MethodReview and Discussion QuestionsProblemsComputer SolutionsSelected BibliographyAnswers to Odd-Numbered Problems
SIMPLEX METHOD
Simplex
does not mean
simple
. Nevertheless,the simplex method is used term afterterm by thousands of students just like you,and you can do it too. The main thing isto keep your eye on the big picture:Understand the overall procedures of the simplexmethod because it is easy to get bogged down in the nitty-gritty details and lose sightof the general process. Pay attention to the small details; this is necessary. But alsoconstantly keep in mind the overall process.The best way to learn the simplex method is to use it to work LP problems. “Ex-perience is the best teacher”certainly applies here.
Simplex Maximization Solutions
Table 1 presents the steps in the
simplex method
. Read them carefully,and don’t worrytoo much about being confused. Remember,get the big picture. Working through anexample will demonstrate the meaning of each of these steps. Example 1 uses the sim-plex method to solve Problem LP-1 from Chapter 8 while methodically following thesteps of the simplex method. Work through every step in this example meticulously;this is absolutely necessary to an understanding of the method. Notice that the stepnumbers in this example correspond to the step numbers in Table 1. You will not needa calculator,because calculators compute in decimals that require rounding or trun-cating. These sources of error are unacceptable in the simplex method,and thereforeall calculations are carried out in fractions.
1

Appendix:Linear Programming Solution Methods
2
Example 1
Simplex Solution of LP-1, a Maximization Problem
As part of its strategic planning process,the Precision Manufacturing Company must determinethe mix of its products to be manufactured next year. The company produces two principal prod-uct lines for the commercial construction industry,a line of powerful portable circular saws anda line of precision table saws. The two product lines share the same production capacity and aresold through the same sales channels. Although some product variety does exist within each prod-uct line,the average profit is \$900 for each circular saw and \$600 for each table saw. The pro-duction capacity is constrained in two ways,fabrication and assembly capacity. A maximum of 4,000 hours of fabrication capacity is available per month,and each circular saw requires twohours and each table saw requires one hour. A maximum of 5,000 hours of assembly capacity isavailable per month,and each circular saw requires one hour and each table saw requires twohours. The marketing department estimates that there is a maximum market demand next year of a total of 3,500 saws per month for both product lines combined. How many circular saws andhow many table saws should be produced monthly next year to maximize profits?
1.Formulate the objective and constraint functions.
LP-1 was formulated in Chapter 8 as:Max Z
900X
1
600X
2
2X
1
X
2
4,000 (fabrication—hours)X
1
2X
2
5,000 (assembly—hours)X
1
X
2
3,500 (market—saws)where:X
1
number of circular saws to be manufactured per monthX
2
number of table saws to be manufactured per month
2.Add slack variables to convert each constraint to an equality (
):
a.2X
1
X
2
4,000 (fabrication—hours)Note that the left-hand side of the expression is less than or equal to the right-hand side(RHS). If the expression is to be an equality (
),something must be added to the left-hand side to increase its value up to the level of the RHS. We shall add a slack variableS
1
to take up the slack between the value of the left-hand side and the RHS. S
1
will take
Table 1
Steps in the Simplex Solution Method
1.Formulate the objective and constraint functions.2.Add slack variables to convert each constraint to an equality (
).3.Add artificial variables to constraints that were originally
or
to produce a starting solution.4.Set up the first tableau,starting solution.5.Check solution for optimality. If optimal,stop. If not,continue.6.Select a variable to enter to improve the solution.7.Select a variable to leave the solution.8.Perform row operations to complete the new solution.9.Return to Step 5 and continue until optimality is achieved.

Appendix:Linear Programming Solution Methods
3
on the value of zero if the left-hand side exactly equals 4,000 and a value of 4,000 if X
1
and X
2
equal zero. When X
1
and X
2
take on values larger than zero,the value of S
1
willdecrease accordingly so that the left-hand side of the expression exactly equals 4,000:2X
1
X
2
S
1
4,000Note the subscript 1 in S
1
denotes that S
1
is the slack variable for the first constraint. Whenwe proceed with and complete the simplex solution,and S
1
takes on some specific valueat the end,we shall automatically know that S
1
belongs to the first constraint—unused fab-rication hours. Similarly,S
2
will belong to the second constraint—unused assembly hours.b.The second constraint is converted to an equality by adding a slack variable S
2
to theleft-hand side:X
1
2X
2
S
2
5,000 (assembly—hours)c.The third constraint is converted to an equality by adding a slack variable S
3
to the left-hand side:X
1
X
2
S
3
3,500 (market—saws)We now have this LP problem:Max Z
900X
1
600X
2
2X
1
X
2
S
1
4,000X
1
2X
2
S
2
5,000X
1
X
2
S
3
3,500
3.Add artificial variables to constraints that were originally
or
to produce a startingsolution.
Since the constraints in this problem were all
,no artificial variables are required.
4.Set up the first tableau,starting solution.
A tableau simply means a table. Each solution will be a tableau.a.First,let all variables appear in the objective function and constraint functions. This isachieved by assigning zero coefficients to all variables not appearing in these expres-sions:Max Z
900X
1
600X
2
0S
1
0S
2
0S
3
2X
1
X
2
S
1
0S
2
0S
3
4,000X
1
2X
2
0S
1
S
2
0S
3
5,000X
1
X
2
0S
1
0S
2
S
3
3,500b.Now put the problem above into the tableau format. The format is achieved by enteringthe set of coefficients for all the variables into the framework below:
First TableauC
900600000
SOLRHSX
1
X
2
S
1
S
2
S
3

0
S
1
4,000
211000
S
2
5,000
120100
S
3
3,500
11001
Z0
00000
(C
Z)
900600000