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October Armarc

October Armarc

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Published by: Brandon Nelson on Nov 10, 2009
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OCT -2009 Vol 1.88
In This Issue
NEWS LETTER OFARMARC
1) PUTA (
HEATING DEVICES INAYURVEDA)
2) A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF MEDICINALPLANTS OF INDIA
3)
Formulation Profile (Series-A/10)SAMSHAMANI VATI4)
Herbal Drug Profile (Series-A/11)
GENTIANAEditorial
Diseases and alterations are part of each life butintelligent treatment brings back that life in main stream.Somebody adopts any alteration from birth and no oneis found faulty behind such condition. Autism is one of them. It is a tendency to morbid self-absorption at theexpense of regulation by outward reality. Autism ischaracterized by impaired social interaction, problemswith verbal and nonverbal communication, and unusual,repetitive, or severely limited activities and interests. It isalways mistaken as madness but it is a most commoncondition of group of developmental disorders. It firstappears during infancy and overt symptoms graduallybegin after the age of six months which are more apparentby age of two or three years. It tends to continue throughadulthood with usual learning disabilities which is notcommon in all cases. In our Indian society these casesare covered family members to expose to avoid anyhindrance in relations, as such things are unknowinglywrongly judged with family background. Recentresearches have shown that in families with one autisticchild, the risk of having a second child with the disorderis approximately 5 percent or sometimes below that. Thispercentage may be for anyone, even without having suchbackground. By the time it is also reality that emotionaldisorders, such as manic depression occur morefrequently than average in the families of people withautism. The reason is more conditional as such familiescare more about such person and are closer emotionally.Children with autism appear to have a higher thannormal risk for certain co-existing conditions, includingfragile X syndrome (which causes mental retardation),tuberous sclerosis (in which tumors grow on the brain),epileptic seizures, tourette syndrome, learning disabilities,attention deficit disorder etc. For reasons that are stillunclear, about 20 to 30 percent of children with autismdevelop epilepsy by the time they reach adulthood. Whilepeople with schizophrenia may show some autistic-likebehavior, their symptoms usually do not appear until thelate teens or early adulthood. Most people withschizophrenia also have hallucinations and delusions, whichare not found in autism.Autism varies widely in its severity and symptomsand may go unrecognized, especially in mildly affectedchildren or when it is masked by more debilitatinghandicaps. Doctors rely on a core group of behaviors to alert them to the possibility of a diagnosis of autism. These behaviors are:
impaired ability to make friends with peers
impaired ability to initiate or sustain a conversation withothers
absence or impairment of imaginative and social play
stereotyped, repetitive, or unusual use of language
restricted patterns of interest that are abnormal inintensity or focus
preoccupation with certain objects or subjects
inflexible adherence to specific routines or ritualsThere is no cure for autism, but patient can be broughtback to theme up to certain extent with treatment. Theideal treatment must target the core symptoms of autismlike impaired social interaction, problems with verbal andnonverbal communication, and obsessive or repetitiveroutines and interests. The following treatments arealready being used as:
Educational and behavioral interventions
: Therapistsuse highly structured and intensive skill-oriented trainingsessions to help children develop social and languageskills. Counseling for the parents and siblings of childrenwith autism are done to help families cope with theparticular challenges of living with an autistic child.
Medications
: Antidepressants are given to avoidanxiety, depression, or obsessive-compulsive disorder.Anti-psychotic medications are used to treat severebehavioral problems. Seizures can be treated with oneor more of the anticonvulsant drugs.
Other therapies
: Number of other therapies learnt fromexperience may be used. It is also duty of common beingto help the family and patient of autism background tofight, not separating them but being part of them.
 
OCT -20092
Newsletter of ARMARC
PUTA (
HEATING DEVICES IN AYURVEDA)
Dr. Mahesh.M.Madalageri Fainal M.D.Guide: Prof.(Dr) D.K.Mishra
M.D
 
(Ay)
, H.O.D.Dept. of Bhaishajya Kalpana, A.L.N.Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College,Koppa
Introduction:
Bhasma kalpana is the part of Dehasiddhi whichcan be prepared by different methods as Surya Puta,Chandra Puta and Agni Puta. Out of these Agni Puta orPuta method is one of the main sources for the preparationof Bhasmas and becomes more popular in the field of Rasashastra.
The History of Puta:
Putas are the ancient method of heating devices,which are used for the Marana of different Rasadravyaslike Metals, Minerals and precious stones. These Putasare being used since Nagarjuna’s period. The detail originof Puta and its period are explained as history of Puta.The history of Puta can be classified into four periodsmainly.1. Vedic period.2. Samhita period.3. Madhyama kala or Rasashastra period4. Modern period or Adhunika Kala
1. Vedic period:
In the oldest testimonials i.e. Vedas,the references of many metals along with its uses werefound. In Rugveda, the metals were used for makingornaments and protection. Silver ornaments like Kadagold necklace, golden and Ayasa ornaments13 aredescribed in vedas. There was no reference foundregarding the Bhasmas or the Puta’s in Rugveda period.In Atharvana Veda, the usage of Swarna, Rajatha andTamra are mentioned as ornaments and for protection.But, no reference regarding the usage of these metals inthe form of Bhasmas or in other Kalpanas and internalmedicines is available. So there is no single reference isfound regarding the Puta’s in the Vedic period.
2. Samhita Kala:
i) Charaka Samhita: During the period of Charaka somereferences regarding the usage of Jangama and parthivadidravyas in the form of Choorna15 are available. It is alsocalled by Raja. At the same time the qualities of Choorna’slike Sookshmatva, Mrudutva and Shlakshnatva areexplained. The Choorna of Muktha is used for eyedisorders. Also Swarna-Rajata makshika, Ayasa andMandura was used internally. But no reference is foundabout the name of Puta or Bhasma in Charaka Samhita.
ii) Sushrutha Samhita:
As we know that, the AcharyaSushrutha is the father of surgery. For surgery the differentkinds of operative instruments are used, which areprepared by different metals. After Charaka’s period,acharya Sushrutha goes one step ahead as one referencewas found i.e. usage of Ayaskruthi.19 In some context,Sushrutha said that the Dhatus are converted into liquidform or melting by keeping in Musha / crucible andsubjecting to heat by using khadira as fuel source.20 Bylooking at this process it can be accessed the developmentof heatingdevices / Agni karmas and Bhasma Kalpanas. But noreference available regarding the Puta
iii) Ashtanga Hridaya:
Acharya Vruddha Vagbhata hasmentioned the use of Andha Musha 21 in one context.But no reference regarding the name of Puta in this treatiseis observed.
iv) Kashyapa Samhita:
In “Navajatha shishuprakarana”, Acharya Kashyapa has mentioned theSwarna prashana vidhana. But there is no referenceregarding the Puta concept in his classics. During the periodof Samhita kala the usage of dhatus in the form of Choorna, Raja, and Ayaskruthi are found, but no referenceabout the Puta and Bhasma. Madhyama Kala orRasashastra period: Madhyama Kala is also called asthe golden period of Rasashastra, because so manyinventions and tremendous works were undergone in thisperiod. The usage of preparations from Metals andMinerals was in full swing during the period of 8 – 9 A.D.Description of all the Metals, Minerals, Precious Stonesetc., along with the synonyms, properties, purification,Marana, therapeutic uses etc, have been describedextensively in almost all texts of Rasashastra.
 
3OCT -2009
Newsletter of ARMARC
Description about the different types of Yantras and theirusage, different types of Putas, for Bhasmikarana process,methodology for conducting Putas, Puta prayojana, Putaphala etc are explained in detail in all the texts of Rasashastra.During the period of Rasashastra, theRasavaidyas were using Mineral origin, Plant origin andAnimal origin dravyas for therapeutic purposes. Rasa,Maharasa, Uparasa, Sadharana rasa, Dhatu, Upadhatus,Ratnas and Uparatnas are used extensively after thepurification and subjecting to Puta process (Marana) asinternally.The concept of Puta and the procedure for conductingPuta was started from 7th century. Acharya Nagarjuna(7-8th century) describes the Shodhana and Marana of different Rasa Dravyas. In 9 – 10th century the author“Govindapada” in Rasahridaya Tantram and“Ugradityacharya” in Kalyanakaraka have mentioned thePuta for the Bhasmikarana of different Dravyas. In 11thcentury, Chakrapani has mentioned usage of Bhasmasand the Dhatus. Preparation of Abhraka Bhasmasubjected, to Agni for Marana / Bhasmikarana and it hasmentioned that the Abhraka Bhasma should posses thequality of Nischandratva. Along with Abhraka Bhasma,some other Bhasmas like Mandura Bhasma, MrugaShrunga Bhasma, Loha Bhasma - Bhanupaka, Sthalipakaand Putapaka and their procedures are also explained.Rasarnavakara (12th century) mentioned only name of Putas for Marana of different dravyas. The directreferences about the concept of Puta are available fromthe texts of 12th century. In the same period of differenttexts like “Anandakanda”, “Rasendra Chudamani” etc.,is also explained the different types of Putas. In chikitsasara by “Vangasena”, three types of Loha are mentioned.In that Ayaskanta and Loha Bhasma and their preparatorymethods and Marana procedure are explained. Theauthor agbhatacharya gave detail description of Putaregarding its types, importance, uses, Puta lakshanas andPuta phalas etc., the other granthas belongs to the samecentury like Rasa Prakasha Sudhakara etc are alsoexplained concept of Puta in detail. The later granthaslike “Sharangadhara Samhita” (14
th
Century), the Bhasmaof Mrugashringa, Swarna, Rajata, Tamra, Naga, Vanga,Yashada, loha, Makshika etc., along with Putapakaprocedures are explained in detail. Bhavaprakasha (16thcentury), Rasakamadhenu (16th century), have explainedin different Putas like GajaPuta, Kukkuta Puta, VarahaPuta, Kapota Puta, Gorvara Puta and Bhanda Puta.Ayurveda Prakasha, Yogaratnakara of 17th century,mentioned regarding Puta. The recent texts of 20thcenturies like “Rasatarangini, Rasajalanidhi etc., areexplained Puta in detail.
Modern period:
The scholars of 21st centuries like Acharya YadavjiTrikamji and D. Joshi have explained in detail regardingtraditional methods of Puta.34 The scholars after studyingthe traditional methods, they have suggested the modernelectric muffle furnace. But the temperature pattern duringthe preparation is not exactly known.
Meaning of Puta:
There are different meanings related to Puta, given by isas follows:1. A fold2. Pocket3. Hallow space4. Slit5. Concavity6. A cloth worn to cover the privities7. A horse hoof.Here the hallow space used to prepare the medication isPuta.Samputa:Enveloping or wrapping of any substances especially forheating.Puta paka:Any cake or pastry filled with seasoning or stuffing of any kind of two vessels joined together for the purposeof placing the medicinal substances. Method of preparingdrugs by subjecting various substances being wrappedup in leaves or in Sharava Samputa covered with mudsmeared cloth at juncture and heated in fire or subjectingto Puta.

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