Improving Commercial Kitchen Ventilation System Performance
makeupair supply, the operator is going tosave money (in both first cost and oper-ating cost) is short sighted. It may beokay if, by design, all of the makeup air canbeprovided through the rooftop HVAC units(this strategy has been adopted success-fully by several leading quick-service restaurant chains).However, in full-service andinstitutional kitchens with larger exhaust requirements, it may not be practical (orenergy efficient) to supply 100% of the replacement (makeup) airthrough the build-ing HVAC system. The solution is to specify an independentmakeupair supply. But, oncededicated MUA has been added to the system,thechallengebecomes introducingthis air into the kitchen without disrupting the ability of thehood to capture and/or without causing discomfort for the kitchen staff. Kitchens are not large and dump-ing 7000 cfm of MUA, for example, in front of a cook line does not go as smoothly in practice as it does on the
air balance schedule!
Not onlycanmakeup air velocitiesimpact the ability of thehood to captureand contain cooking effluent, locally sup-plied makeupair that is toocold or toohot can create an uncomfortable workingenvironment.This design guide presents strategiesthat can minimize the impactthat the makeup air introduction will have on hood performance and energy con-sumption.
Fundamentals of Kitchen Ventilation
Hotair rises! An exhaust fan in the ceiling could easily remove the heat produced by cooking equipment. But mix in smoke, volatileorganic compounds,greaseparticles and vapor from cooking, a means to capture and contain the efflu-ent is neededto avoid health and fire hazards. While an exhaust hood serves thatpurpose, the key question is always: whatis the appropriate exhaust rate? The an-swer always depends on the type (and use) of the cooking equipment under thehood, the style and geometry of the hood itself, and how the makeup air (condi-tioned or otherwise) is introduced into the kitchen.Cooking appliances are categorized as light-, medium-, heavy-, and extraheavy-duty, depending on the strengthof the thermalplume and the quantity of greaseand smoke produced. The strengthof the thermal plume is a major factor in determiningthe exhaust rate. By their nature, these thermal plumes are very turbu-lent and different cooking processes have different “surge” characteristics. For ex-ample, the plume from hamburger cooking is strongestwhen flipping the burgers.Ovens and pressure fryers mayhave very little plume until they areopened to re-move food product. Open flame,non-thermostaticallycontrolled appliances, such
Page 2California Energy Commission P500-03-034FRev 5.5.03