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Kitchen Ventilation Improvement

Kitchen Ventilation Improvement

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Published by: memoo5000 on May 13, 2014
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Kitchen Ventilation Improvement
Course No: M01-003 Credit: 1 PDH
Steven Liescheidt, P.E., CCS, CCPR
Continuing Education and Development, Inc. 9 Greyridge Farm Court Stony Point, NY 10980 P: (877) 322-5800 F: (877) 322-4774 info@cedengineering.com
Design Guide
Improving Commercial Kitchen Ventilation System Performance
This design guide provides informa-tion that will help achieveoptimumperformance and energy efficiency in commercial kitchen ventilation sys-tems.The information presented is applicable to new construction and, in manyinstances, retrofit construction. The audience for this guideline is kitchen designers, mechanical engi-neers, food service operators, prop-erty managers, and maintenancepeople. This guide is intended to augment comprehensive design in-formation published in the KitchenVentilation Chapter in the ASHRAEHandbook on HVAC Applications.
An effective commercial kitchen ventilation (CKV) system requires bal-anceair balancethat is. And as the designer, installeror operator of the kitchenventilation system, you maybe the first person called upon to perform your ownbalancing act” when the exhaust hood doesn’t work. Unlike a cooking appliance,which can be isolated for troubleshooting,theexhaust hood is only one componentof the kitchen ventilation system.To further complicate things, theCKV system is a subsystemoftheoverall building heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC)system. Fortunately,there is no “magic” to the relationship between an exhaust hoodand its requirement for replacementor makeup air (MUA). The physics are simple:air thatexits the building (through exhausthoods and fans)must be replaced withoutside air that enters thebuilding (intentionallyor otherwise). The essence of
air balance
 “air in” = “air out!”
If the replacement air doesn’t come in, thatmeans it doesn’t go outtheex-haust hood and problems begin. Not only will the building pressure become too “negative,”the hood may not capture and contain (C&C) cooking effluents due to reduced exhaust flow. We haveall experienced the can’t-open-the-door” syndromebecause the exhaust fan is sucking too hard on the inside of the restaurant.The me-chanical design may call for 8000 cubic feet per minute(cfm) of air to be exhausted through the hood. But if only 6000 cfm of outdoor air is able to squeeze in throughclosed dampers on rooftopunits and undesirable pathways in thebuilding envelope,then only 6000 cfm is available to be exhausted through the hood. The exhaust fancreates more suction (negative pressure) in an unsuccessful attempt to pull more airthrough thehood.
Introduction1Background1Kitchen Ventilation Fundamentals2Influence of Makeup Air5MUA Recommendations6Influence of Other Factors9Energy Saving Considerations6Design Guide Summary12Case Study13
 There is no piece of equipmentthat generates morecontroversy within the food service equipment supply and design community than the exhaust hood in all itsstyles and makeup air combinations. The idea that by not installing a dedicated
Page 1California Energy Commission P500-03-034FRev 5.5.0
Improving Commercial Kitchen Ventilation System Performance 
makeupair supply, the operator is going tosave money (in both first cost and oper-ating cost) is short sighted. It may beokay if, by design, all of the makeup air canbeprovided through the rooftop HVAC units(this strategy has been adopted success-fully by several leading quick-service restaurant chains).However, in full-service andinstitutional kitchens with larger exhaust requirements, it may not be practical (orenergy efficient) to supply 100% of the replacement (makeup) airthrough the build-ing HVAC system. The solution is to specify an independentmakeupair supply. But, oncededicated MUA has been added to the system,thechallengebecomes introducingthis air into the kitchen without disrupting the ability of thehood to capture and/or without causing discomfort for the kitchen staff. Kitchens are not large and dump-ing 7000 cfm of MUA, for example, in front of a cook line does not go as smoothly in practice as it does on the
air balance schedule
 Not onlycanmakeup air velocitiesimpact the ability of thehood to captureand contain cooking effluent, locally sup-plied makeupair that is toocold or toohot can create an uncomfortable workingenvironment.This design guide presents strategiesthat can minimize the impactthat the makeup air introduction will have on hood performance and energy con-sumption.
Fundamentals of Kitchen Ventilation
Hotair rises! An exhaust fan in the ceiling could easily remove the heat produced by cooking equipment. But mix in smoke, volatileorganic compounds,greaseparticles and vapor from cooking, a means to capture and contain the efflu-ent is neededto avoid health and fire hazards. While an exhaust hood serves thatpurpose, the key question is always: whatis the appropriate exhaust rate? The an-swer always depends on the type (and use) of the cooking equipment under thehood, the style and geometry of the hood itself, and how the makeup air (condi-tioned or otherwise) is introduced into the kitchen.Cooking appliances are categorized as light-, medium-, heavy-, and extraheavy-duty, depending on the strengthof the thermalplume and the quantity of greaseand smoke produced. The strengthof the thermal plume is a major factor in determiningthe exhaust rate. By their nature, these thermal plumes are very turbu-lent and different cooking processes have different “surgecharacteristics. For ex-ample, the plume from hamburger cooking is strongestwhen flipping the burgers.Ovens and pressure fryers mayhave very little plume until they areopened to re-move food product. Open flame,non-thermostaticallycontrolled appliances, such
Page 2California Energy Commission P500-03-034FRev 5.5.0

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