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Seminar on CDMA by amit

Seminar on CDMA by amit

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Published by a_mit



CDMA is type of spread spectrum communication. It was initially used only in military satellites to overcome jamming and provide security to the user.
Each binary transmission symbol is represented by a spreading code consisting of ‘0s’ and ‘1s’ sequence. The bit rate of the code is typically much greater than the symbol bit rate and is referred to as the “chip_rate” . each user has a unique code that is orthogonal to all the other codes. The resulting signal is obtained by the product of the input data stream and the spreading code. At the receiver , the incoming bit stream is co-related with the receivers spreading code and user data is received. If the data is not meant for that user (i.e. different spreading code), it appears as noise.
CDMA stands for ‘code division multiple accesses. There is a basic difference between multiplexing and multiple access
 When signals originate from the same source and transmitting over a single channel that is called multiplexing.
 When signals originate from several different source and transmitting over a single channel that is called multiple access.











 Division by frequency, so that each pair of communicators is allocated part of the spectrum for all of the time, results in Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA).
 Division by time, so that each pair of communicators is allocated all (or at least a large part) of the spectrum for part of the time results in Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA).
 In Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), every communicator will be allocated the entire spectrum all of the time. CDMA uses codes to identify connections.












CDMA is a form of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum communications. In general, Spread Spectrum communications is distinguished by three key elements:
1. The signal occupies a bandwidth much greater than that which is necessary to send the information. This results in many benefits, such as immunity to interference and jamming and multi-user access, which we’ll discuss later on.
2. The bandwidth is spread by means of a code which is independent of the data. The independence of the code distinguishes this from standard modulation schemes in which the data modulation will always spread the spectrum somewhat.
3. The receiver synchronizes to the code to recover the data. The use of an independent code and synchronous reception allows multiple users to access the same frequency band at the same time.
In order to protect the signal, the code used is pseudo-random. It appears random, but is actually deterministic, so that the receiver can reconstruct the code for synchronous detection. This pseudo-random code is also called pseudo-noise (PN).
Spread spectrum is a technique whereby a modulated waveform is modulated (spread) a second time in such a way as to generate an expanded-bandwidth wide band signal that doesn’t significantly interfere with other signals . bandwidth expansion is achieved by second modulation means , A means that is independent of the information massage .




Application and potential Advantages :
1. improved interference rejection.
2. code division multiplexing for cdma applications.
3. low density power spectra for signal hiding.
4. high resolution ranging .
5. secure communication.
6. Antijam capability .
7. increased capacity and spectral efficiency in some mobile_celluar PCs.
8. graceful degradation of performance as the number of simultaneous users of RF channel increases.
9. lower cost of implementation.
Classification :
1. Direct_sequence spread spectrum .
2. Frequency hopping .
3. carrier sense multiple access
4. time hopping.













Figure 1. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum System
CDMA is a Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum system. The CDMA system works directly on 64 kbit/sec digital signals. These signals can be digitized voice, ISDN channels, modem data, etc.
Figure 1 shows a simplified Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum system. For clarity, the figure shows one



CDMA is type of spread spectrum communication. It was initially used only in military satellites to overcome jamming and provide security to the user.
Each binary transmission symbol is represented by a spreading code consisting of ‘0s’ and ‘1s’ sequence. The bit rate of the code is typically much greater than the symbol bit rate and is referred to as the “chip_rate” . each user has a unique code that is orthogonal to all the other codes. The resulting signal is obtained by the product of the input data stream and the spreading code. At the receiver , the incoming bit stream is co-related with the receivers spreading code and user data is received. If the data is not meant for that user (i.e. different spreading code), it appears as noise.
CDMA stands for ‘code division multiple accesses. There is a basic difference between multiplexing and multiple access
 When signals originate from the same source and transmitting over a single channel that is called multiplexing.
 When signals originate from several different source and transmitting over a single channel that is called multiple access.











 Division by frequency, so that each pair of communicators is allocated part of the spectrum for all of the time, results in Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA).
 Division by time, so that each pair of communicators is allocated all (or at least a large part) of the spectrum for part of the time results in Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA).
 In Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), every communicator will be allocated the entire spectrum all of the time. CDMA uses codes to identify connections.












CDMA is a form of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum communications. In general, Spread Spectrum communications is distinguished by three key elements:
1. The signal occupies a bandwidth much greater than that which is necessary to send the information. This results in many benefits, such as immunity to interference and jamming and multi-user access, which we’ll discuss later on.
2. The bandwidth is spread by means of a code which is independent of the data. The independence of the code distinguishes this from standard modulation schemes in which the data modulation will always spread the spectrum somewhat.
3. The receiver synchronizes to the code to recover the data. The use of an independent code and synchronous reception allows multiple users to access the same frequency band at the same time.
In order to protect the signal, the code used is pseudo-random. It appears random, but is actually deterministic, so that the receiver can reconstruct the code for synchronous detection. This pseudo-random code is also called pseudo-noise (PN).
Spread spectrum is a technique whereby a modulated waveform is modulated (spread) a second time in such a way as to generate an expanded-bandwidth wide band signal that doesn’t significantly interfere with other signals . bandwidth expansion is achieved by second modulation means , A means that is independent of the information massage .




Application and potential Advantages :
1. improved interference rejection.
2. code division multiplexing for cdma applications.
3. low density power spectra for signal hiding.
4. high resolution ranging .
5. secure communication.
6. Antijam capability .
7. increased capacity and spectral efficiency in some mobile_celluar PCs.
8. graceful degradation of performance as the number of simultaneous users of RF channel increases.
9. lower cost of implementation.
Classification :
1. Direct_sequence spread spectrum .
2. Frequency hopping .
3. carrier sense multiple access
4. time hopping.













Figure 1. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum System
CDMA is a Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum system. The CDMA system works directly on 64 kbit/sec digital signals. These signals can be digitized voice, ISDN channels, modem data, etc.
Figure 1 shows a simplified Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum system. For clarity, the figure shows one

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Published by: a_mit on Nov 11, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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09/15/2010

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History of CDMA
A method for multiple access(single channel , multiple users)
The conventional methods were FDMA
Then after developing synchronization TDMA was developed inearly 1980s it was introduced
Its first use was done in military
in early 1990s its first use was done in cellular communicationsystem
 
 
Different CDMA methods
CDMA is infact aSPREAD SPECTRUM(SS) method
Special features of SS are resistance to
1.
Signal Exploitation
2.
SpoofingHence military or intelligence application

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