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Textile Industry in Pakistan

Textile Industry in Pakistan

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Published by: raoumar on Nov 12, 2009
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November 10,2009
Assignment 2
“Textile Industry In Pakistan” 
Submited By: Mr. Rao Umar FarooqInternational BusinessJyvaskyla University of Applied Sciences, Jyvaskyla, Finland
Submitted To: Mr. Murat AkpinarSubject: Markets Industry and Dynamics
Introduction:
Country: PakistanRegion: South AsiaArea: 796096 sq kmPopulation: 170 MillionFocused Industry: Textile
Textile industry in the world is pretty much diversified. There are several countries who havea share in this industry like China, Pakistan, Turkey, South Korea, Indonesia, Bangladesh,Mexico, India, United States etc. Although textile sector is in bad condition due to therecession but still its growth rate is about 3% per annum.Textile products are produced through a logical development of raw materials into finishedgoods. The steps include extraction of 
Fibers
from sources, converting fibers into
Yarn
(amultitude of hair like filaments or fibers that have been separated, made parallel, overlappedand twisted together by various processes), changing yarn into
Fabric
(usually made throughweaving or knitting) and final consumer goods (generally garments and home furnishings).Sometimes fibers are directly compressed into fabric eliminating the intermediate spinning
 
November 10,2009
(yarn production) process. A good knowledge of fibers and their properties is necessary for  better understanding of 
Textile Processes
.
Main Raw Material Cotton
Cotton is a fiber that grows from the surface of seeds in the
 Pods
or 
 Bolls
, of a bushy mallow plant. Each fiber is a single elongated cell that is flat and twisted with a wide inner hollow
(Lumen)
. It is composed of about 90 percent
Cellulose
and about 6 percent
 Moisture
; theremainder consists of 
 Natural Impurities
.The outer surface of the fiber is covered with a protective wax-like coating, which gives thefiber a somewhat adhesive quality. This characteristic combined with its natural twistcontributes to making cotton an excellent fiber for spinning into yarn. Cotton yarn is used inmaking fabrics that are universally used for all types of apparel, home furnishings andindustrial applications. It is one of the oldest fibers used in textile applications. Its versatilityis almost unlimited and new uses are constantly discovered.
 
November 10,2009
Figure 1.1: Inner Layer of an Enlarged Cotton Fiber 
TYPES OF COTTON
The particular type of cotton is often identified by the name of the country or geographicalarea where it is produced. The quality of cotton fiber is based on its color (degree of whiteness), length (or staple), fineness, and strength. Usually the longer fibers are finer andstronger. Variations among cotton fibers occur because of growth conditions including suchfactors as soil, climate, fertilizers, and pests. The more frequently used types are UplandCotton, American Pima, Egyptian Cotton, and Asiatic Cotton.
a. UPLAND COTTON
Upland cotton fibers are fairly white, strong, dull, and range in staple length from 22 to 32mm. These are used in many fabrics, either wholly or as a component of blends withmanmade fibers. Upland cottons are classified as short-staple (Less than 25 mm), medium-staple (26-28 mm) and long staple (29 mm and above). The quality and characteristics varyamong the kinds.
b. AMERICAN PIMA

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