&. "tandard enthalpy changes!he change in chemical potential energy during a chemical reaction is known as the
for that reaction. t is given the symbol
. 'y convention, if the reaction is exothermic (ie heat is given out) the enthalpy change is said to be negative*
H + ve. f the reaction is endothermic (ie heat is absorbed) the enthalpy change is said to be positive*
H + -ve.!he enthalpy change of a reaction depends on the reaction conditions. t is therefore necessary to specify standard conditions for the measurement of enthalpy changes. !hese are taken to be atmospheric pressure (1 atm) and room temperature (&/%). Enthalpy changes measured under standard conditions are known as
stan)ar) enthalpy changes
and are given the symbol
. 0uring these chemical changes, the pressure should be kept constant.
The enthalpy change for a reaction is the heat energy change meas!re) !n)er con)itions of constant press!re
The stan)ar) enthalpy change for a reaction is the heat energy change meas!re) !n)er stan)ar) con)itions* + -Pa an) a state) temperat!re .!s!ally /0123
.!he enthalpy change also depends on the amount of substance used. t is therefore necessary to specify the amount of reactants used. Enthalpy changes are conventionally measured in kmol
H + heat energy change2no. of moles3iven a reaction* 4 - 5'
&6 - 70!he standard enthalpy change for this reaction is taken to be the enthalpy change under standard conditions when one mole of 4 reacts with three moles of ' to give two moles of 6 and four moles of 0. Eg f 8.& moles of 4 react with 8.9 moles of ' and &88 k of energy are released, the enthalpy change is &8828.& + 1&88 kmol