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Chemistry notes 2.1 notes

Chemistry notes 2.1 notes

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Published by Osama Bin Amer
chemistry notes
chemistry notes

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Published by: Osama Bin Amer on May 15, 2014
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Topic 2.1 ENERGETICS  Measuring and Calculating Enthalpy Changes Mean Bond Dissociation Enthalpies ess! "a#
 
ENTHALPY CHANGES
1. Exothermic and endothermic reactionsWhen a chemical reaction takes place, the products and reactants have different stabilities and thus there is a change in potential energy. However since total energy is always conserved, any change in potential energy must be balanced by an equal and opposite change in kinetic energy.
The lower the chemical potential energy of a given chemical species, the more stale it is
.
This means that stale species have a lower potential energy than !nstale species"
 n some reactions, the products are more stable than the reactants. !he products therefore have less potential energy than the reactants, and the potential energy of the reacting species decreases."ince the total energy is always conserved, it follows that the kinetic energy of the species must increase. !he particles thus move faster and the temperature increases. #eactions in which the products are more stable than the reactants thus involve a transfer of energy from potential to kinetic and an increase in temperature.$E
 %E"uch reactions give out heat and are thus said to be
E#$THE%&'C
.n other reactions, the reactants are more stable than the products. !he products therefore have more potential energy than the reactants, and the potential energy of the reacting species increases."ince the total energy is always conserved, it follows that the kinetic energy of the species must decrease. !he temperature of the system thus decreases. #eactions in which the reactants are more stable than the products thus involve a transfer of energy from kinetic to potential and a decrease in temperature. %E
 $E"uch reactions absorb heat and are said to be
EN($THE%&'C
.
 
&. "tandard enthalpy changes!he change in chemical potential energy during a chemical reaction is known as the
enthalpy change
 for that reaction. t is given the symbol
H
. 'y convention, if the reaction is exothermic (ie heat is given out) the enthalpy change is said to be negative*
H + ve. f the reaction is endothermic (ie heat is absorbed) the enthalpy change is said to be positive*
H + -ve.!he enthalpy change of a reaction depends on the reaction conditions. t is therefore necessary to specify standard conditions for the measurement of enthalpy changes. !hese are taken to be atmospheric pressure (1 atm) and room temperature (&/%). Enthalpy changes measured under standard conditions are known as
stan)ar) enthalpy changes
 and are given the symbol
H
o
. 0uring these chemical changes, the pressure should be kept constant.
The enthalpy change for a reaction is the heat energy change meas!re) !n)er con)itions of constant press!re
.
The stan)ar) enthalpy change for a reaction is the heat energy change meas!re) !n)er stan)ar) con)itions* + -Pa an) a state) temperat!re .!s!ally /0123
.!he enthalpy change also depends on the amount of substance used. t is therefore necessary to specify the amount of reactants used. Enthalpy changes are conventionally measured in kmol
1
. "o
H + heat energy change2no. of moles3iven a reaction* 4 - 5'
 &6 - 70!he standard enthalpy change for this reaction is taken to be the enthalpy change under standard conditions when one mole of 4 reacts with three moles of ' to give two moles of 6 and four moles of 0. Eg f 8.& moles of 4 react with 8.9 moles of ' and &88 k of energy are released, the enthalpy change is &8828.& + 1&88 kmol
1

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