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Pd History and Future

Pd History and Future

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Published by Ammar_khalid
Brief Description of PD
Brief Description of PD

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Published by: Ammar_khalid on May 16, 2014
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Workshop 2001, Alexandria, Virginia, December 3 & 4 , 2001
 A significant trend in the development of electrical power apparatus is the increase of the power andsize of the units. This requires severe demands on increased reliability [1;2]. Today's high voltageinsulation technology therefore requires modern testing procedures. In this respect increasingattention is being paid to the development of predictive diagnostic tools. Against this background,there is no doubt that the recognition of partial discharges (PD) is of great importance, because PDphenomena can be regarded as the forerunner for ageing phenomena in electrical insulation.Despite the recent progress in PD diagnostics, we should remember that the basis for this has beenestablished over a long-term historical development. Because of the great amount of existingpublications, however, it seems impossible to report in detail on the complete chronologicaldevelopment of partial discharge technology. This presentation will therefore only feature someexamples.
The very beginning of partial discharges recognition goes back to the year 1777, in whichLICHTENBERG reported on novel results of experimental studies [3] during a Session of the RoyalSociety in Göttingen. Using VOLTA's "Elektrophor" the "Harzkuchen" this instrument showed fantasticdust figures like stars and circles (Fig. 1(. It lasted more than 100 years until it was clarified, that thedust figures represented dielectric surfaces discharges appearing as electrical discharge channels.
Fig. 1:
Dust figures produced by surface discharges under positive (left) and negative polarity (right)of the applied voltage, presented by
Lichtenberg in 1777 [3] 
In 1873 MAXWELL published "A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism" [4]. His theoretical work is of fundamental relevance for both, the design of instrumentation for electrical PD detection and thedevelopment of physical models for better understanding of the very complex PD phenomena.
Fig. 2:
Experimental set-up for demonstration of the existence of electromagnetic waves
Hertz 1886 
In the year 1896, HERTZ demonstrated with an impressive experiment, according to Fig. 2, thehypothesis of MAXWELL on the existence of electromagnetic waves and their propagation in spaceand time. In principle, his experiment can be regarded as the first application of the inductive fieldcoupling mode, nowadays used for in the Lemke Probe LDP-5 [5].
Both electrical and non-electrical procedures are used for PD recognition. Due to the limited time I willconcentrate only on some highlights in the development of electrical PD detection. These methodswere of highest technical importance in the first decades of the 20th century, forced by the practicalapplication of electrical power and the newly developed HV equipment for the generation,transmission and distribution of electricity.The first measuring device used for the electrical detection of PD events was the loss factor bridgeaccording to SCHERING, developed in 1919 [6] and applied for this purpose in 1924. One year later,in 1925 SCHWAIGER recognized the radio frequency character of corona discharges [7]. This findingcan be considered as the basis for the introduction of radio interference meters for evaluation of thenoise level of corona discharges. This RIV test is still widely used, especially in North America. InGermany,this kind of instrument has been first used by DENNHARD in 1937 [8]. An essential progress in PD detection was achieved when electron beam oscilloscopes wereavailable. In 1928, LLOYD and STARR used two pairs of perpendicular deflection plates inside theBRAUN tube [9] for displaying PD events. Here, one pair was subjected to the instantaneous testvoltage, whereas the other pair has been connected to a capacitor, used for the accumulation of thegenerated corona charge. This early approach, called parallelogram method, allowed an excellentwide-band measurement of corona discharges in wire-plane arrangements, used for the simulation of HV overhead transmission lines.In 1928 BYRSTLYN introduced a simple equivalent circuit for the assessment of PD losses under ACstresses [10]. His approach "Funkenstrecke mit Vorkondensator" has been systematically investigatedby GEMANT and PHILIPPOFF by means of oscillograghic techniques in 1932 [11]. In this way, theycould explain the sequence of discharge events per cycle of the applied AC voltage.It should be noticed, that the previous mentioned parallelogram method can be regarded as thepredecessor for the integrating bridge, used by DAKIN and MALINARIC in 1960 [12]. This tool isnowadays also applied, in particular for physical PD studies (Fig. 3), as reported in [13]. Theintegrating circuit has been modified by our Dr. Lemke in 1976 in order to study so-called pulse-lessdischarges at high sensitivity [14]. Some selected measuring examples are shown in Fig. 4.

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