Workshop 2001, Alexandria, Virginia, December 3 & 4 , 2001
PD DIAGNOSTICS – ITS HISTORY AND FUTURE
A. Bolliger, E. LemkeLEMKE DIAGNOSTICS GMBH, GERMANYLEMKE DIAGNOSTICS AG, SWITZERLANDHV TECHNOLOGIES, INC: USA
A significant trend in the development of electrical power apparatus is the increase of the power andsize of the units. This requires severe demands on increased reliability [1;2]. Today's high voltageinsulation technology therefore requires modern testing procedures. In this respect increasingattention is being paid to the development of predictive diagnostic tools. Against this background,there is no doubt that the recognition of partial discharges (PD) is of great importance, because PDphenomena can be regarded as the forerunner for ageing phenomena in electrical insulation.Despite the recent progress in PD diagnostics, we should remember that the basis for this has beenestablished over a long-term historical development. Because of the great amount of existingpublications, however, it seems impossible to report in detail on the complete chronologicaldevelopment of partial discharge technology. This presentation will therefore only feature someexamples.
2. HISTORICAL REVIEW
The very beginning of partial discharges recognition goes back to the year 1777, in whichLICHTENBERG reported on novel results of experimental studies  during a Session of the RoyalSociety in Göttingen. Using VOLTA's "Elektrophor" the "Harzkuchen" this instrument showed fantasticdust figures like stars and circles (Fig. 1(. It lasted more than 100 years until it was clarified, that thedust figures represented dielectric surfaces discharges appearing as electrical discharge channels.