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aerodynamics

aerodynamics

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Published by Swadesh Dixit
fundamentals about AD
fundamentals about AD

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Published by: Swadesh Dixit on May 16, 2014
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Introduction
A well-known beach in Kerala is at Kovalam. Not much is, however, known of the fishing village at Vizhinjam, which is about a kilometer away. This fishing harbor is the site of a uniue !emonstrations "lant that converts wave energy into electrical energy that can be e#"orte! via the local electricity gri!. The "lant works on what is known as the $%&  "rinci"le. 'nergy is e#tracte! from the system an! use! to generate electricity by allowing the tra""e! air to flow via a turbine. The wave "ower "lant at Vizhinjam ()igure *+ has !emonstrate! that this is "ossible. The technology of converting wave energy into electrical energy thus e#ists. n or!er to a""reciate the tremen!ous "rogress that has been achieve! over the "ast !eca!e, it woul! be a""ro"riate to start from the beginning.
Principle
 A consi!erable amount of energy is "resent in the ocean waves "oun!ing against a  breakwater. owever, it is not from the breaking waves that the energy can best be e#tracte!. The force of the win! blowing over the oceans surface generates waves. The regular breakers seen on most beaches originate at sea an! can come from a variety of storms. The waters surface acts like a great conveyor belt, !elivering "ower from great !istances. %aves vary in several ways. They vary from location to location an! also from season to season. %here the win!s are stea!y the waves "ersist for long "erio!s of time. %aves at !ee" sea can have a sha"e that is close to a sinusoi!al wave. As a first a""ro#imation, the most im"ortant characteristics of wave are its height , its "erio! T, an! its wavelength / ()igure 0, 1&hakrabarti *2345+. The wave height is the vertical !istance  between a wave crest an! an a!jacent trough6 the wave "erio! is the time it takes to successive crests to "ass a fi#e! "oint6 an! the wavelength is the horizontal !istance between two crests. The wave sha"e "ro"agates unchange! in a regular manner with a "hase s"ee! c6 however, the water "articles !o not "ro"agate horizontally within wave sha"e, instea!, they move in a circular motion. At the surface, the circular motion has a !iameter eual to wave height, but this !ecreases away from the free surface as shown in )igure 7. An object floating on the oceans surface will not be trans"orte! very much by the waves. 8ather, it will bob u" an! !own an! !rift back an! forth as the waves "ass by. Trans"ortation of water from one location to another is "rimarily !ue to ocean currents not ocean waves. t is the  "ower of the circular motion that the wave energy !evice must convert to useful energy.
 
&haracteristic of a waveVariation of circular motion with !e"thThe average "ower 9 (%:m+ in a regular sine wave "er meter wave front of waves with height  an! "erio! T can be e#"resse! as; 9 < rg00T:3" %here r is the !ensity of water, g the acceleration of gravity. owever, in "ractice waves are far from i!eal. n nature, waves are irregular an! can  be !escribe! by statistical mo!els. f the wave con!itions are measure!, over 0= minutes for e#am"le, the mean wave height m an! the significant wave height s can be calculate!. The significant wave height is !efine! as the average of the highest 77> of the waves. ?n!er such circumstances, the wave "ower can be state! to be; 9 < =.@@ 0s Tz k%:m length of wave crest %here Tz is the zero crossing "erio! 1&harlier, ustus *2275. Bea waves are a mi#ture of waves of various am"litu!es an! freuencies. %ave freuency, which is im"ortant while stu!ying hy!ro!ynamics of the oscillating water column, is the inverse of the "erio! of the wave. The average wave "otential along the n!ian coast is aroun! @-*= k%:m. n!ia has a coastline of a""ro#imately 4@== km. 'ven *=> utilization woul! mean a resource of 74@= C 4@== D%.
 
 Principle of the wave energy converter
 
A few hun!re! "atents have been registere! worl!wi!e on !ifferent ty"es of wave energy converters. owever, it is wi!ely recognize! that the only !evice that can be built to even a mo!erate !egree of satisfaction, using "resently available construction techniues, is a shoreline $%& (Beymour *220+. An $%& consists of a "artially submerge!, hollow structure, which is o"en to the sea below the water line. This structure encloses a column of air on to" of a column of water. The inci!ent waves cause the water column to rise an! fall, which alternately com"resses an! !e"ressurizes the air column. f this tra""e! air is allowe! to flow to an! from the atmos"here via a turbine, energy can be e#tracte! from the system an! use! to generate electricity. The $%& can be re"resente! as in )igure E. The $scillator water &olumn
Description of the wave energy plant
The n!ian wave energy research starte! in *237 with the formation of an inter-!isci"linary grou" at the n!ian nstitute of Technology (T+, &hennai un!er the s"onsorshi" of the Fe"artment of $cean Fevelo"ment, Government of n!ia. The initial research con!ucte! by the %ave 'nergy Grou", T &hennai focuse! on the choice of the wave energy !evice (8aju, 8avin!ran *234, 8aju, 8avin!ran *232+. Hase! on stu!ies on three ty"es of !evices, namely, !ouble float system, single float vertical system, an! the $%& "rinci"le, it was conclu!e! that the $%& showe! the ma#imum  "romise for n!ia. &onseuently, !evelo"ment activities were concentrate! on this !evice alone. Bome of the im"ortant as"ects that govern the !esign of a wave energy "lant are !iscusse! below.
Hydrodynamics
The $%& wave energy !evice is a resonating !evice, which can be tune! to any  "re!ominant freuency of the wave by altering the !imensions of the !evice. As far as hy!ro!ynamic as"ects were concerne!, the focus was on theoretical an! e#"erimental stu!ies for the !evelo"ment of sha"e an! o"timum !imensions of the $%& !evice. Theoretical

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