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traumatic brain injuries study guide

traumatic brain injuries study guide

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Published by: caloi on Nov 12, 2009
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11/20/2012

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Angeles University Foundation
Angeles City
College of Nursing
“Traumatic Brain Injuries& Chest Trauma”
(A Case Report)
Submitted By:Ano, Carl Elexer C.BSN IV- 11, Group 41Submitted To: Jeremiah Buenafe RN, MNAugust 26, 2009
Introduction
 
 Traumatic brain injury is an insult to the brain that is capable of producingphysical, intellectual, emotional, social, and vocational changes (J. Black, 2202).Chest trauma on the other hand may be minor and have little effect onrespiratory status, but then again, chest wall trauma that damages theunderlying lung tissue is a major health threat (AUF-CON NCM 104 handouts). These two traumatic injuries are mainly brought about by motor accidents.Statistics shows that in the United States, head injuries happen every 15seconds.Recent innovations regarding traumatic brain injuries especially those of with hematoma include Decompressive Craniotomy. The benefits of decompressive crainotomy (DC) in the treatment of traumatic brain injurypatients with increased intracranial pressure (ICP) are controversial. A recentstudy Williams R. F. et al. 2009, showed that DC resulted in good functionaloutcome in over 50% of patients with severe TBI. The maximum benefit wasobserved in younger patients with demonstrable reduction in ICP afterdecompression. These are factors to consider when the choice of DC arises afterinjury. (http://www.braininjury.com/research.htmlaccessed on August 23, 2009)More so, a new innovation on the diagnosis of pneumothorax waspresented by Dr. Stewart Siu Wa Chan. A relatively new application of emergency ultrasound is its use in the diagnosis of pneumothorax. In patientswith major trauma, early detection and treatment of pneumothorax are vital.Chest radiography in these patients is limited to anteroposterior (AP) supinefilms, in which radiographic features of pneumothorax may be quite subtle.Hence, rapid and accurate bedside ultrasonography can expedite resuscitation.Sonographic features of pneumothorax have been identified in a number of studies. The technique involves identification of the pleural line and observationfor features such as "lung sliding" and comet-tail artifacts, which are absent inpneumothorax.(http://www.pneumothorax.org/pneumo.nsf/SBH/DB1D4EC902D5C55585256CE40055AD35?OpenDocumentaccessed on August 23, 2009)
II. Nursing Assessment
 
Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of head injuries. This iscommon among males younger than 30 years old especially those whoingest alcohol or those who have a history of substance abuse and those whodrive recklessly.Chest trauma in the other hand may be Idiopathic, or caused by bluntor penetrating trauma to the chest such as gunshot wounds, stab wounds,penetrating foreign object. Falls, motor accidents which may bring aboutfracture, or this maybe also iatrogenic in nature such as COPD, tuberculosis,diseases that may cause brittleness of the bone, complication due toinsertion of central IV line, complications of chest surgery, complications of thoracentesis, or accidental removal of chest tube.
III. Pathophysiology
Acute Brain Injuries/ Traumatic Brain Injuries

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