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Mass Balances

# Mass Balances

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08/15/2013

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Mass Balances
MASS BALANCES
1
Systems of units
1.1
Systeme International ( SI )
SI system is the official system throughout the world.Fundamental( basic) unitsLength- metre- mmass- kilogram- kgtime- second- stemperature- kelvin- K (not degree kelvin)Derived unitsVolume- cubic meters- m
3
force- kilogram meter / second
2
- N ( Newton) or kg m / s
2
pressure- Newton / m
2
- N / m
2
or pascal ( Pa)energy- Newton meter- J (Joule) or Nm
1.2
American Engineering
length- foot- ftmass- pound mass- lb
m
time- second- stemperature- degree Fahrenheit-
0
Fvolume- cubic foot- ft
3
force- pound force- lb
1.3
Centimetre-gram-second( cgs)
length- centimetre- cmmass- gram- gmtime- second- svolume- cubic centimetre- cm
3
temperature- degree centigrade - C or K1.4
General
From sections 1.1,1.2, and 1.3 it is clear that mass and volume have different unitsbased on the system we use. These units must always be included with thenumerical value or it has no meaning. Thus 1000g and 1 kg are identical and it doesnot matter which is used, provided the correct label (unit) is given. In general,chemical engineers tend to use SI units i.e. kg for mass and m
3
for volume.e.g. Flow rate of feed into a reactor is 150 kg/s. Just 150 is not acceptable.
1

Mass Balances
2.SYMBOLS
Chemists and Engineers use symbols to represent atoms. Every element has adifferent symbol. Elements are listed in the
Periodic Table.
Oxygen =
O
The letter
O
stands for one atom and
O
2
stands for two atoms of oxygenSometimes two letters are needed to represent an elementegSodium =
Na
second letter always in lower casefirst letter is always written in capital lettersWhether the symbol of an element is one letter or two letters, the symbol stands for one atom of the element. When an element is represented by two letters, the firstletter is in capital and the second letter is in lower character. Sometimes the lettersare taken from the Latin name of the elemente.g.Copper = Cufrom Cuprum (Latin name)Iron = Fe from Ferrum (Latin name)Cobalt = Co( single element)Aluminium= Al( single element)Number of elements in a compoundCarbon dioxide = CO
2
(a compound consisting Carbon andOxygen - both letters capital)Sulphuric acid = H
2
SO
4
( three capital letters, hence there arethree elements – H, S and O )Calcium phosphate = Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
(three capital letters, hence there are threeelements– Ca, P and O)
Symbols of some common elements
ElementSymbolElementSymbolElementSymbo
2

Mass Balances
3Naming of Compounds
When you try to name an inorganic compound from the chemical formula the firstthing you should do is to name the first symbol. In the formula CO
2
the first symbol Cis carbon and therefore the name should begin with carbon --------. In the formulaCaCO
3,
the first symbol is calcium and therefore the name should begin withcalcium -------.The reminder of the formula indicates the rest of the name.When the ending is a single element, the name is
usually
derived by ending thename with an –
ide
ending1)
Compounds made up of a metal and a non-metal
:- metal is always writtenfirst.Eg. NaCl sodium chlor
ide
( Na is a metal and Cl is a non-metal)MgOmagnesium ox
ide
( Mg is a metal and O is a non-metal)
2)Compounds made up of two non-metals
:- the non-metal that is either lower down the group(if both non-metals are in the same group) or nearest to the lefthand side of the periodic table is placed first.e.g.sulphur and oxygenSO
2
sulphur diox
ide
carbon and oxygenCO
2
carbon diox
ide
carbon and sulphurCS
2
carbon disulph
ide
3)
Compounds made up of three elements
a) metal, non-metal, and oxygen: these compounds have
- ate
ending.e.g.Na, S, O Na
2
SO
4
sodium sulph
ate
In this case you ignore the fact that there are two sodium atomsb) metal, hydrogen, oxygen: these compounds have a
hydroxide
ending with
O
written before
H
.e.g.K, H, OKOHpotassium
hydroxide
Na, O, HNaOHsodium
hydroxide
3.1 Names used for the end groups of inorganic formulaeUnless you know the names of the groups listed in the table given below, you cannotname the compounds.
Ensure you learn these names.

Group
Name used for the end groupExampl eName
OOxideZnOzinc oxideSsulphideZnSzinc sulphideClchlorideNaClsodium chlorideFfluorideCaF
2
calcium fluorideIiodideKIpotassium iodideBrbromidePbB
2
4
sulphateMgSO
4
magnesium
3

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