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Comp Re

Comp Re

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Published by: The JC Student on Nov 12, 2009
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05/20/2010

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"'i'li
,1
General
PaPer
JC2
Preliminary
Examination
Paper2
lnsert
I
This
ansert
consistsof
2
printedpaqes
-IheEconomisr'ssuryeyoffalenit|oclotr.j(7Ih2006)examinestheimpactofglobalmefilocracy-
ln'The
Riseof
the Meritocracy"
published
in
1958
Michael
Young'
a British
sociologist
and
i'ot't
p"'r"
'ai"*r'
"onl"i'p'n
rmaqc
ol
a socrelyobsF5sed
wtth
lalenl
_fhedate wds
;6:;:'#';il;',&#'n,i
#'r*"0
trie
art
or
ro
restins
Bur
tar
rrom
promorrns
''""'ar
i,,,*i"v,"'ri"'p,*"Lp.rion
;irh
tarenr.had
prod,:ff
;:1fl"?.;:l:T,,[.'
l';"fi"itrl5,
talentwar
weredoublyunhappy'consdo(
olJ.JioG
irnu,".l
rventuitiv
ttrev
revoned
asainsl
therr
maslersll'lalenl"-owed
mor€lo
i]irr.
tt"nnun*.,
u"
many
.oiiat
scienlists
nsi"sledlhen
rewardrngpeople for
therr
lalenl
*r"
i".i"..r.t
t"i"*"rdirE
themfor havingpnvileged
parerds)
There
ar;denty
of
signs
that
anotherbaclJash
is onthe
way
Much
of
this
resenlrn-ent
focuses
on
qrowinq
inequalitieseeopte.ompra'n
rt'ir
tnese
are
slraining
the
bonds
of
sociely.to
tO
h6'!
in^
Mint,
new
anslocracv
oitaled
;;
telrealrng
tnlogoldenghetlos and-running
the
:ffi:i:#S"'fi#l'J'ff;iJ;,;:':i;'
rarented
r;ain
manvor
the
vrcesorarrstoc'acv
in'iJriil
"r-.t,i!t:
"iia
the
late
chrisrophelLasLh
an American
hisrooan
rn
one
o(
the
besr
],l:d;il?J;t
"
rosii
ot
t"r"nt
'"*
's
meritosatic
themost
taiented
set
the
mostrewards.
But
thereality
of
o..oo."v
'.
us"iitnnrn,
tt
e
peopt.
can
us"
tt'.ir
polil|calpower
as
75
ln some
ways
things
are
worse
lhan
theywerewhenYoung
wrotehls
book
lnequaldFs
are
-"J
\/via"r'_m
rr,lir,
emericaano
crrina
ttrevare
retumingio
early2oth-century
levels
.
and
liiili'ii}i
J'rii,'
ii'ii!-glob,l
v'uns'"
i';b'l"
can
nq;
add
Ftriotism
to.
esalitadanism
samuel
Huntington,
a
political scrent'st,
;;;;;;;i
"
'maiorgap
is
growng.inArnerica
20
betweenit'sindeasingly
denatronalised
"iG-c
itt
"th;nk-Godfot.l'merica
public'
fi;;;r.;";il;";iri
portanu
sr<itrs
nop
iiomlob
to
job
and
thinklheirbranpowet
allows
il;";;il'i,i;;;i;r,
Lutin,earlv'
ma'nv
are'walkins
on
the
stones
their€mplovers
have
.nnvehier{lv
Dlaced below
tfrem.
ncross
mu'ch
Jf
tre
de'veloprng
woria'
thetargels
ofchoice
ff;fiifi:i'ff;;i;Jlii"a
'i"t''"t
'ti'"r"
'inl'iii'"
'na'r"'!isn""
'u,,.'.,,
;,'
Thelink
bebdeen
talent
andinequality,and
the
ensumgpolarised social
hierarch{.are
beins
t
i
continuallyreififorced.
Ther"
i"
"
t"noenJ
ot
Lt"niea
"peopte
to
ctuster
wether.
You
mighthavethought
lhalthe
advent
of
the
rntemel
ioiJf'"u"
"tif"a
rnt *nneciion
between
p{aceand
talenl
ln faci,the
oppo"it
e
n"ppun'nn
"-v
Ji'"iti
iogett"t
b""au"e
thgy
f9{-ofi
eatft
othe/s
intellectAndthepaces
"n"*
Ee'liiiilt
itiitt"it*
su-ting.
ino"asinsly
30unequal,
s/ith
thetalent
elite
atthetop,
Jr"'-ce
t"orf'ersattfre
Uottom
and
nothingrnuchin-
bett
/een
The middle
lav",i"tu,ns
o"utniui;y-"fy-ttistt
ttoutt
p'io"
"nd
low{ualitv
publicschools.
MembeGofihe{alentelitearegoodalh€ginghumancapjtal'.They,marry.peoplelike
themselves-ln the
heydayot
'company
men;'
Binfets
rnarry ttreir
secretaries;nowth€y
maffy
35
o{her bankers.
rhey
woa
in
pu,
rnrr
"ijt'tl-ir,"ii
intell;dual
capital.
They.
live
.in
'talenteoctaves,,
avvay
,rom
ordinary
.iOOf".frJJ
"rUr,l.,
fei aloneinner-city
gtredos
Above
all
thev
oass
on
therr
advantages
t"
*r,_.r,ir0....
ita.nts
f'omthe
lop
income
quartile
li'LJ.ii"Ju
"#"
"ipi,*il"
al"
n'"'i""'i
"*"oiri"'
r'o'
3so/o
in
1s76
to50%
in
1ee5
None
o{ thrs
is
pecularlo
Amenca
or
olher
nch
counlties'the
same
thing
is
happeninq
m
lhe
l0
ii"ir,ilriJ-*l,aili
"".n
star(erlorm
u"r"*
'iG'
i"r"'r
"hretryhardto.sivetheir
'nildren
i"""
J""'"iii.
"o""ti.gu
on.
,.ont
o""tJi"r
in
China
'HarvardGirl"'
tellsthestory
of
two
I
I
I
I
I
III
l4
i
I
I
J
 
parentswhotrainedtheirdauahter
fo;
H:rvard.
from
birth,banagingher
wiih
verbal
siimuti,
ubjpcling
lr-r
roa
srr"nuousr-.Srm-
ol
home
srudvand
mrt,nd
hp,
!u.i_
y
and
makingher
swim
tong
distances.An
I
::::^"n:",*i,
?il?,:
is.R€nr;s
Jl]nior
coleq.
i"
i;;";;;;
;;.';;
i;:;J.i:X:tr;"?ll
chools
atgettang
students
into
Amerjcan
tvy
Lergr.
,"i"J;jti."
But
in other
ways_thingshave
got
much
better
The
number
ofwinnersisnow
rarger
rhan
ir
ds
rn
1958.
In
younq
s
dav
rhe ma.i,ocrats
..""..,,,r"J
o""pitriin
,"#i.
'i.i
"rorion"
nd
the senior
crvit
service.
rhe
resr wpre
tabe'ed
r"irr,*.
;i";:
i;;;:
;";;'lno
nu,o*
avecreated
a
mass
heher
e.j,,.jr,."
syvem..ano
deveropidd;;;;;;Jlrrined
to
so
ottow
suit
When
younq;as
wrilino
ch,na
and
tnora
were
tLpi.-d
in
po""rtv.iio",
rt.V
,"
rowing
so
fast
that
thby,too,
are
siiferrng
trom
ratonrshortaq-'
-iPer\rr'
rwud:
.
Moreover,
some
paoblems
could prove
selt
correclng
Manytalented
people
nol
onlycreate
tobs
andweatrh,they
tum
rheir
hands
r.
ph
anth,opi,
*
eir
G"i;iijiil#;
jdf"r
h*"
one.lThe
growinq
retlrns
to edreridn
create
incentives
f"|.
p..pi.
i.
g"i
inemsetves
ss
ducared,
producir€
a bener-lrainedwofrdorce
".
*"rr
""
,p*.io
L-"5ii"itv]irtiiii,
,"rir,""
pend
moe
on
education
than
on
envrhing.
etse,Oespir.
tireone_*ira''poiicyi
U,in,n"tion"r
companiesroutinety promore
tocar
tah;r
injhe
d."el";.s;l;:
;;j;li
Ji"Llr",n",ri-
lhnicfac€-ontheglobaltalent
efite
overheated
talentmarkets p.ompi
companies
tomove
roductionetsewhere
-
roMvsore rarhcrrhan
Br^s"to,u,
;y,';,'l;irJ"ffjlE".,
,r,an
uo
iliconeValley.
1^1':
:11'.|:':
o
:.:r."thing
appealinsaboul.themFr
ouatic
ideat:most peopte
are
w
ing
to
ccepl
wde
rnequalities
if
thevare
collntFd
with
equatity
of
opporrunityt"
itn.llli,"..*"
hirds
oJ
the
popuration
befie;elhar
everyone
has
an
equar
chancetogerahead,
rar
fewer
eoplefavourincomeredistribution
than
i;
Europe.
65
Growngweallh
alsomeans
lhat so.jFtv
can
reward
a
widerrange
of
talenls,These
days,sports.starsand€ntertainers
can make
;iflions.
rt"."
"r"
"Lo
irnliu-rrJ"ii""io'r'li
*n"
o,
speciatisedtatents,
fiom
the
oiff of
h.inding.his{o.yro
m.
1"iitr,oi"
.*Jl_i.iiw*ii"iJn"n"1
t
he-abiti{y
toproduce
aperfoasouffi6 (-rhe-besrp;io
J.rl"
nir.il','w.rd.,.J
"l"d
"".*
16mlast year).
ltsometmes
seems
lhatlirere
rs
no tatentso re@nditethatyoucannot
make
ZO
a livinsoulofit. Takeru
-rsunami-
Kobayashi
e"-"
rno."ir,"n
ii6ij]dii'JrJ""i"Iii.
*.n0,"
olclog
ealingchampion:
he
caneat
mor;
than50
in
12
mrnutqs
--
-'--
Thebestway
to
head
off a
backlash
is
fd
giveeverybody
a
fair
chance.Thismeansinvestingin.chitdhoodnutritionandpre-schoot
educaiion.
ft
.tso
#;;;;l;;;.'#J.""1.,,n.
educalional
radder
Deveroping
counrries
need
to
conrinue
rhe
marchrowards
unversar
zs
flmaryeducation:failure
to
do
so
wilt
exacerbate
sk
strortages
as
wlli""
,ial"j""or"ni""
Developed
count.ies
need
totoughenup
lheir
schoots.
h lh;
1-96i;;l;-r.nl"Jt"ol,"
*.,"
or,!,ering-standardsin..the
name-of
chite_cenrred
eduFlion
"nO
"r,itir[-
riiJ,iffii1i"
"*"y
om
sctence
snd
mathematics.
The
chbf
vic[ms
o{this
!
/ere
u"a".pi"iusJ
;ii;"
,h"
ouldnolrelyonthejrparentsto
make
up
iorlhe
deficiencies
of
lheir
sihools:
A0
The
success
of
advan@deconomies
is
increasinglydependent
nol
ontheir
physical
cap
at
buton
theircapacity
to
mobitise
their
ciucns'
tratd6;;:i,;;;;;;i
ilit',liT!",tv
i"
1943
[Mnston
churchifi
observed
that'untike
the
uripiru"
or
th.-i""t,l'hi""iiit.
riiri"
*uo.
mpires
ofthemind.'
Hemight
have added
rhat
the
banres
.iit.l
i"irl
*iii
o"
r"itr."
r..elcnt
85The
rise
of
a
global
meritoqacy
otfersall
sorts
of benefits,
from
highergrowthin
productvrly
to
lasler-scienlificprogress.
r
ca;
boostsociarmobirityand
a[owe[-sorts"ot
weiJlnc
wonoertutrdrerirs
Io
oroom
the
talenl
wars
mav
be
a
source
of
Unhappiness
for
mmpanies
andcounlries.
8.rt
theyshouldalso
be a
cau;e
lor
cetebralton.
I
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I
t0
I
rl
II
I
II
,l
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