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Lecture Notes in Nuclear Structure Physics - B. Alex Brown

Lecture Notes in Nuclear Structure Physics - B. Alex Brown

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1
Lecture Notes in Nuclear Structure PhysicsB. Alex BrownNovember 2005National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratoryand Department of Physics and AstronomyMichigan State University, E. Lansing, MI 48824
 
CONTENTS 
2
Contents
1 Nuclear masses 6
1.1 Masses and binding energies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.2
Q
values and separation energies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.3 The liquid-drop model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2 Rms charge radii 253 Charge densities and form factors 314 Overview of nuclear decays 40
4.1 Decay widths and lifetimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414.2 Alpha and cluster decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424.3 Beta decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514.3.1 Beta decay Q values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524.3.2 Allowed beta decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534.3.3 Phase-space for allowed beta decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 574.3.4 Weak-interaction coupling constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 594.3.5 Double beta decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 594.4 Gamma decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614.4.1 Reduced transition probabilities for gamma decay . . . . . . . 624.4.2 Weisskopf units for gamma decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
5 The Fermi gas model 686 Overview of the nuclear shell model 717 The one-body potential 77
7.1 General properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 777.2 The harmonic-oscillator potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 797.3 Separation of intrinsic and center-of-mass motion . . . . . . . . . . . 817.3.1 The kinetic energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 817.3.2 The harmonic-oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
8 The Woods-Saxon potential 87
8.1 General form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 878.2 Computer program for the Woods-Saxon potential . . . . . . . . . . . 918.2.1 Example for bound states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 928.2.2 Changing the potential parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 938.2.3 Width of an unbound state resonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 948.2.4 Width of an unbound state resonance at a fixed energy . . . . 95
9 The general many-body problem for fermions 97
 
CONTENTS 
3
10 Conserved quantum numbers 101
10.1 Angular momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10110.2 Parity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10110.3 Isospin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
11 Quantum numbers for the two nucleon system 107
11.1 Two neutrons or two protons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10711.2 Proton-neutron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10811.3 Two nucleons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
12 The Hartree-Fock approximation 110
12.1 Properties of single Slater determinants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11012.2 Derivation of the Hartree-Fock equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11112.3 Examples of single-particle energies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11312.4 Results with the Skyrme hamiltonian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11512.4.1 Binding energies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11812.4.2 Single-particle energies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12112.4.3 Rms charge radii and charge densities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12212.4.4 Displacement energies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
13 Angular Momentum and Tensor Algebra 136
13.1 Angular momentum coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13613.1.1 Coupling of Two Angular Momenta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13613.1.2 Coupling of Three Angular Momenta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13813.1.3 Coupling of Four Angular Momenta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14013.2 Tensors and reduced matrix elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14213.2.1 Special reduced matrix elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14313.2.2 Products of tensor operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14413.2.3 Other convensions for reduced matrix elements . . . . . . . . . 146
14 Single-particle electromagnetic moments 148
14.1 General results and notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14814.2 General results for closed-shell and single-particle configurations . . . 14914.3 Magnetic moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15114.4 Electric quadrupole moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
15 The Creation Operator Method 159
15.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15915.2 Creation Operators and Wavefunctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15915.3 Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16215.4 Examples o
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Matrix Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

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