INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL.
Sliding Mode Control Design Principles andApplications to Electric Drives
Abstract-The paper deals with the basic concepts, mathemat-ics, and design aspects of variable structure systems as well assliding modes as a principle operation mode. The main argu-ments in favor
sliding mode control are order reduction,decoupling design procedure, disturbance rejection, insensitivityto parameter variations, and simple implementation by means
power converters. The control algorithms and data processingused in variable structure systems are analyzed. The potential
sliding mode control methodology is demonstrated for versatilityof electric drives and functional goals of control.
high level of scientific and publication activity, an
nremitting interest in variable structure control en-hanced by effective applications to automation problemsmost diverse in their physical nature, and functional pur-poses are a cogent argument to consider this class ofnonlinear systems as a prospective area for study andapplications.The term “variable structure system” (VSS) first madeits appearance in the late
Since that time, the firstexpectations of such systems have naturally been reevalu-ated, their real potential has been revealed, new researchdirections have been originated due to the appearance ofnew classes of control problems, new mathematical meth-ods, recent advances in switching circuitry, and (as aconsequence) new control principles.The paper is oriented to base-stone ideas of
designmethods and selected set of applications rather than thesurvey information or a historical sequence of the eventsaccompanying VSS development since at its differentstages survey papers
have been published.Inaddition, monographs
summarize the results of these stages.Furthermore, it will be shown that the dominant role inVSS theory is played by sliding modes, and the core ideaof designing
control algorithms consists of enforcingthis type of motion in some manifolds in system statespaces. Implementation of sliding mode control implieshigh-frequency switching. It does not cause any difficultieswhen electric drives are controlled since the “on-off”operation mode is the only admissible one for power
Manuscript received June 6, 1992. A revised version
the paper waspresented at the
Workshop, Reno, NV, June
The author is with the Institute
converters. This reason predetermined both the high ef-ficiency of sliding mode control for electric drives and theauthor choice of the application selection topic in thispaper.11.
VSSVariable structure systems consist of a set of continu-ous subsystems with a proper switching logic and, as aresult, control actions are discontinuous functions of sys-tem state, disturbances (if they are accessible for mea-surement), and reference inputs. In the course of theentire history of control theory, intensity of discontinuouscontrol systems investigation has been maintained at ahigh enough level.
particular, at the first stage, on-offor bang-bang regulators are ranked highly due to ease ofimplementation and efficiency of control hardware.Futhermore, we shall deal with the variable structuresystems governed by
0(for each component)
with continuous functions
subsystems and its structure varies on
surfaces at the state space. From the point of view of ourlater treatment, it is worth quoting the elementary exam-ple of a second-order system with bang-bang control andsliding mode:
which was considered by Andronov
[131 in connec-tion with his study of autopilot dynamics. It follows fromanalysis of the
state plane (Fig.
that, in theneighborhood of segment
on the switching line
the trajectories run in opposite directions, which leads tothe appearance of a sliding mode along this line. Theswitching line equation
may be treated as a motion
Authorized licensed use limited to: Sejong University. Downloaded on November 11, 2009 at 06:52 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.