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SMC in electrical drive

SMC in electrical drive

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS
ON
INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL.
40,
NO.
1,
FEBRUARY
1993
23
Sliding Mode Control Design Principles andApplications to Electric Drives
Vadim
I.
Utkin
Abstract-The paper deals with the basic concepts, mathemat-ics, and design aspects of variable structure systems as well assliding modes as a principle operation mode. The main argu-ments in favor
of
sliding mode control are order reduction,decoupling design procedure, disturbance rejection, insensitivityto parameter variations, and simple implementation by means
of
power converters. The control algorithms and data processingused in variable structure systems are analyzed. The potential
of
sliding mode control methodology is demonstrated for versatilityof electric drives and functional goals of control.
I.
INTRODUCTION
high level of scientific and publication activity, an
All
nremitting interest in variable structure control en-hanced by effective applications to automation problemsmost diverse in their physical nature, and functional pur-poses are a cogent argument to consider this class ofnonlinear systems as a prospective area for study andapplications.The term “variable structure system” (VSS) first madeits appearance in the late
1950’s.
Since that time, the firstexpectations of such systems have naturally been reevalu-ated, their real potential has been revealed, new researchdirections have been originated due to the appearance ofnew classes of control problems, new mathematical meth-ods, recent advances in switching circuitry, and (as aconsequence) new control principles.The paper is oriented to base-stone ideas of
VSS
designmethods and selected set of applications rather than thesurvey information or a historical sequence of the eventsaccompanying VSS development since at its differentstages survey papers
on
theory
[1]-[4]
and applications
[51,
161
have been published.Inaddition, monographs
[7]-[12]
summarize the results of these stages.Furthermore, it will be shown that the dominant role inVSS theory is played by sliding modes, and the core ideaof designing
VSS
control algorithms consists of enforcingthis type of motion in some manifolds in system statespaces. Implementation of sliding mode control implieshigh-frequency switching. It does not cause any difficultieswhen electric drives are controlled since the “on-off”operation mode is the only admissible one for power
Manuscript received June 6, 1992. A revised version
of
the paper waspresented at the
IEEE
VARSCON
’91
Workshop, Reno, NV, June
6,
1991.
The author is with the Institute
of
Control Sciences,
117
806, Moscow,Russia.
IEEE
Log
Number 9204071.
converters. This reason predetermined both the high ef-ficiency of sliding mode control for electric drives and theauthor choice of the application selection topic in thispaper.11.
SLIDING
ODES
N
VSSVariable structure systems consist of a set of continu-ous subsystems with a proper switching logic and, as aresult, control actions are discontinuous functions of sys-tem state, disturbances (if they are accessible for mea-surement), and reference inputs. In the course of theentire history of control theory, intensity of discontinuouscontrol systems investigation has been maintained at ahigh enough level.
In
particular, at the first stage, on-offor bang-bang regulators are ranked highly due to ease ofimplementation and efficiency of control hardware.Futhermore, we shall deal with the variable structuresystems governed by
X
=f(x,t,u),
x
E
Rn,U
E
R
u+(x,
)
if
s(x)
>
0(for each component)
u-(x,t)
if
s(x)
<
0
(1)
The VSS
(1)
with continuous functions
f,
,
U+,
-
con-sists of
2”
subsystems and its structure varies on
m
surfaces at the state space. From the point of view of ourlater treatment, it is worth quoting the elementary exam-ple of a second-order system with bang-bang control andsliding mode:
x
+
a2X
+
a,x
=
U,
U
=
-M
signs
s
=
cx
+
X,
M,c,a,, a2
-
const
(2)
which was considered by Andronov
et
al.
[131 in connec-tion with his study of autopilot dynamics. It follows fromanalysis of the
(X,
)
state plane (Fig.
1)
that, in theneighborhood of segment
mn
on the switching line
s
=
0,
the trajectories run in opposite directions, which leads tothe appearance of a sliding mode along this line. Theswitching line equation
s
=
0
may be treated as a motion
0278-0046/93$03.00
0
993
IEEE
Authorized licensed use limited to: Sejong University. Downloaded on November 11, 2009 at 06:52 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
 
24
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS,
VOL.
40, NO.
1,
FEBRUARY
1993
Fig.
1.
Sliding mode in a second-order relay system.
one
cx+x=o
Fig.
2.
State planes
of
linear structures.
(3)
\
i
with solutions depending only on the slope gain
c
andinvariant to plant parameters and disturbance (should theplant be subjected to).The sliding mode domain is bounded in the aboveexample, but if the amplitude of discontinuous control ismade state dependent
(M
=
klxl, k
=
const), it may coin-cide with the whole switching line. The system consists of
two
linear structures
(U
=
krc
and
U
=
-la)
hown inFig. 
2 
for
a,
=
0,
a2
<
0.
Due to the sliding mode (Fig.
3)
afterthe state reaches
s
=
0,
it decays exponentially in accor-dance with
(3).
The systems with discontinuous control
(1)
are knownto generate sliding modes with state trajectories runningin discontinuity surfaces as well. Similar to the aboveexamples, state velocity vectors may be directed towardone
of
the surfaces and sliding mode occurs along it (arcs
ab
and
cb
in Fig. 4). It may arise also along their intersec-tion (arc
bd).
5 
illustrates the sliding mode at theintersection even if it does not exist at each of them takenseparately.Letusdiscuss major reasons why sliding modes wereand are of exceptional significance in
VSS
controlmethodology. First, in sliding mode the input of the ele-ment implementing discontinuous control is close to zerowhile its output (exactly speaking its average value
U,)
takes finite values (Fig.
6).
Hence the element implementshigh (theoretically infinite) gain, that is the conventionalmean to suppress influence
of
disturbances and uncertain-ties in system behavior. Unlike systems with continuouscontrol, the invariance is attained using finite controlactions. Second, since sliding mode trajectories belong tosome manifold of
a
dimension lower than that
of
thesystem, the order of a motion equation is reduced as well.This enables simplification and decoupling design proce-dure. Both order reduction and invariance to plant dy-namics are transparent for the above second-order exam-ple. And, finally, a pure technological aspect of usingsliding mode control should be mentioned.
To
improvethe performance, inertialess power thyristor and transistorconverters are increasingly used as actuators in controlsystems. Even if continuous algorithms are employed, thecontrol
is
shaped as a high-frequency discontinuous signalwith an average value equal to the desired continuouscontrol since a switching mode is the only operation one
x
Fig.
3.
Sliding mode in a variable structure system.Fig.
4.
Sliding mode in discontinuity surfaces and their intersection.Fig.
5.
Sliding mode in the intersection
of
discontinuity surfaces.
f
Fig.
6.
Implementation
of
high-gain control via the sliding mode.
Authorized licensed use limited to: Sejong University. Downloaded on November 11, 2009 at 06:52 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
 
UTKIN:
SLIDING MODE CONTROL DESIGN PRINCIPLES
,
M
t
I
0
n
0
-
U
a
t
i
0
25
E
x
I.
s
t
c
n
c
V
c
0
n
&
1
SLXDXNa
MODE
CONTROL
I
Mathc
-
mat
I
a
Methods
Applications
1
m
0
t
0
P
T?
0
C
e
a
a
-
i
n
i
n
d
U
=
t
I
rl
n
I.
0
Fig.
7.
Scope
of
sliding mode control theory.
for the converters. It seems more natural
to
employ thealgorithms oriented toward discontinuous control actions.The study of sliding modes is a multifacet problem thatembrances mathematical, control theoretical, and applica-tion aspects. The chapters and sections of this study areshown inFig.
7. 
111.
MATHEMATICAL
ETHODS
To justify strictly the arguments in favor of employingmultidimensional sliding modes we need mathematicalmethods
of
describing sliding modes in the intersection ofdiscontinuity surfaces
s
=
0
and the conditions for thismotion
to
exist.The first problem arises due to discontinuity of controlsince the relevant differential equations do not satisfyconventional theorems on existence uniqueness solutions.We confine ourselves to a second-order example todemonstrate that discontinuous control systems may needsubtle treatment.Let the discontinuous control in thesystem
XI
=
o.3X2
-k
uxI
i,
=
-0.7~~
4u3x,,
=
-sign
xis,
s
=
x1
+
x2
be implemented by a limiter and then by a hysteresis relayelement
so
that A-the width of the limiter linear zoneand the hysteresis loop-is small enough when comparedwith the magnitude
of
control. The experiment with
A
=
0.01
shows that in spite
of
closeness
of
the controls, themotion along the switching line is unstable in the firstcase and asymptotically stable in the second one (Fig.
8).
Fig.
8.
Ambiguity
of
sliding mode equations.
In cases when conventional methods are not applicable,the usual approach is to employ the regularization ap-proach
or
replacing the initial problem by a closely similarone, for which familiar methods can be used. In particu-lar, taking into account delay or hysteresis of a switchingelement, small time constants neglected in an ideal model,replacing a discontinuous function by continuous approxi-mation, are the examples of regularization since disconti-nuity points (if they exist) are isolated.In our opinion, the universal approach to regularizationconsists of introducing a boundary layer
llsll
<
A
aroundmanifold
s
=
0
where an ideal discontinuous control isreplaced by a real one such that the state trajectories
of
system
(1)
are not confined to this manifold but runarbitrarily inside the layer (Fig.
9).
The only assumptionfor this motion is that the solution exists in ordinarysense. If, with the width of the boundary layer tending tozero, the limit of this solution exists, it is taken as a
Authorized licensed use limited to: Sejong University. Downloaded on November 11, 2009 at 06:52 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

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